PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Ion, Selection Bias, Naturalistic Observation

12 views3 pages
20 Jul 2016
Department
Course
Chapter(2(:(research(methodology(
Critical+thinking+skill:+identifying+the+need+for+control+groups,+recognizing+that+large+samples+are+
more+reliable+than+small+samples+
What(is(scientific(inquiry?(
It+is+a+way+ of+finding+answers+to+empirical+ questions+that+can+be+answered+by+observations+or+
measure.+ It+ has+ 4+ goals:+ describing+ what+ happened,+ predicting+ when+ it+ happened,+ controlling+
what+causes+it+to+happen,+and+explaining+why+it+happened.+The+scientific+method+is+used.+
The(scientific(method(depends(on(theories(hypotheses(and(research(
A+theory+(model+of+interconnected+ideas+and+concepts+that+explains+what+is+observed+and+makes+
predictions+ about+ future+ events)+ should+ generate+ a+ hypothesis+ (a+specific+ prediction+ of+ what+
should+be+observed+in+the+world+if+the+theory+is+correct).+If+the+theory+is+accurate+the+hypothesis+
should+ be+ supported.+ Once+ hypotheses+ have+ been+ developed+ research,+which+ involves+ the+
systematic+ and+ careful+collection+ of+ data,+ or+ objective+ information+ that+provides+ a+ test+ of+the+
hypothesis,+and+ultimately+says+if+the+theory+is+likely+to+be+supported.+Once+the+research+findings+
are+ in,+ you+ return+ to+ the+ original+ theory+ to+ evaluate+ the+ implications+ of+ the+ data+ that+ were+
collected.+The+findings+either+support+or+require+modifications+of+the+theory.+The+study+must+be+
replicated+ and+ the+ results+ must+ be+ the+ same.+ Theories+ must+ give+ rise+ to+ a+ wide+ variety+ of+
hypotheses+to+allow+evaluation.+
Focus+on+a+theory,+formulate+a+hypothesis,+conduct+research,+analyze+whether+the+data+supports+
or+refutes+the+theory,+report+results+and+embark+on+further+inquiry.+
Many+ scientific+ discoveries+ are+ the+ results+ of+ serendipity:+ when+ researchers+ unexpectedly+
discover+something+important.+
(
What(are(the(types(of(studies(in(psychological(research?(
There+are+3+main+types+of+study+design:+descriptive,+correlational+and+experimental+which+differ+
in+the+extent+to+which+the+researcher+has+control+over+the+variables+in+the+study+and+therefore+in+
the+extent+to+which+the+experimenter+can+make+conclusions+about+causation.+The+variables+must+
be+defined+in+a+precise+way+that+reflects+the+method+used+to+assess+them.+This+is+done+by+using+
operational+definitions,+which+identify+and+quantify+variables+so+they+can+be+tested.+
Descriptive(studies(involve(observing(and(classifying(behaviour((
Descriptive(studies+(observational+studies)+involve+observing+and+noting+behaviour+to+analyse+it+
objectively.+Advantages:+valuable+in+early+stages+of+research,+when+trying+to+determine+whether+
a+ phenomenon+ exists+ and+ takes+ place+ in+ a+ real+ world+ setting.+ Disadvantages:+ errors+ in+
Unlock document

This preview shows page 1 of the document.
Unlock all 3 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class