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PSYC 100
James Mac Dougall

Introduction I Seven Theme of Psychological ScienceEmpirical science collects evidenceNaturenurture are inexplicably intertwinedBrainmind are inseparableBiological revolution is energizing researchMind is adaptivePsychological science crosses levels of analysisWe are often unaware of multiple influences on our thoughts feelings and actionsEpistemology The theory of knowledge The scientific method is objective Systematic procedures are used to understand what is being studied Understanding how science is conducted helps determine which studies are credibleNature and NurtureGenes vs experience o Biologically innate or acquired through education experience and cultureBoth now recognized as importantNo more identical twins monozygotic twinsChanging beliefs about influences of nature vs nurture on mental illness such as o Schizophrenia o Bipolar disorder o PTSD o Autism Spectrum Disorder oothers BrainMind Are InseparableParallelism vs interactionismDescartes theory of dualism o Maintained distinction between mind and body o Assigned body many mental functions previously considered the minds domainPsychological scientists largely reject dualistic thinking o The mind is what the brain does The Biological RevolutionNeurochemistryThe Human Genome ProjectWatching the working brainAnimal studies vs human studiesHundreds of substances play critical roles in mental activity and behavioursHuman genome is helping scientists understand how situational context influences how genes are expressedMany brain regions participate to produce mental activityVery complexWilder Penfield helped to map brain functions by stimulating different areas of the brainNow use MRIs along with other types of brain scans The Mind is AdaptiveBrain has evolved over millions of years to solve problems related to survival and reproductionMind is adaptive in both biological and cultural terms o Genetic mutations adaptivemaladaptiveNeed to be aware of our ancestors challenges in order to understand current behaviourSurvival of the fittest o Dependency on group culture o Cultural evolution has been much faster than biological evolutionRichard Nisbett social DarwinismScientific Foundations of PsychologyBegan with structuralismFunctionalism purpose of behaviourGestalt emphasizes patterns and context in learningWomen made pioneering contributionsFreud emphasized power of the unconsciousMost behaviour can be modified by rewardpunishmentCognition affects behaviourSocial Situations affect behaviourIs psychological therapy based on scienceCHAPTER ONE NOTES FOLLOWING LECTUREPsychological Science The study of mind brain and behaviour Mind Mental activityLevels of AnalysisBiological o Focus on brain genetics neurochemistry o Studies neuroanatomy brain imagery neurotransmitters hormones gene mechanisms twinsadoptionsIndividual o Focus on perception and cognitive behaviour o Studies personality gender age groups selfconcept decision making memory senses actionsSocialo Focus on interpersonal behaviour o Studies relationships persuasion influence stereotypes group behavioursCultural o Focus on thoughts actions behaviours in different societies o Studies norms beliefs values ethnicities symbolsExperimental Psychology Begins with StructuralismWilhelm Wundt established first psychology labPsychological processes take time to occurIntrospection a systematic examination of mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the context of their thoughts Functionalism Addresses Purpose of BehaviourPrincipals of Psychology 1890 by William James is one of the most influential books is the history of early psychologyStream of consciousness describes ones continues series of everchanging thoughtsFunctionalists applied research to real world
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