Class Notes (834,026)
Canada (508,290)
Psychology (3,325)
PSYC 180 (9)
Amir Raz (9)
Lecture

PSYC180 - The Media, Psychology, and Critical Thinking.docx

3 Pages
76 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 180
Professor
Amir Raz
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC180 February 9 Lecture Rasputin Effect: somehow, questionable claims tend to live on despite overwhelming negative evidence Media vs. Science  Media depictions sometimes misleading, plain wrong  Hypnosis not a zombie-like trance state, not dangerous, people don’t lose control of themselves  Little scientific evidence to believe people have multiple indwelling selves separated by amnesic barriers and created in response to trauma  Goals of scientific enterprise and media differ  Media: tell a good story with vivid, memorable, often sensational examples; play to people’s emotions; incorporate popular beliefs with little or no scientific support  Personal advice articulated in the language of emotion  Easy answers, quick fixes  Media commercialized Expertise heuristic – we place particular trust in people who describe themselves as experts  Advice industry fosters the idea that anything goes in psychology and medicine Science: A Weeding Process  Science: incorrect claims tend to be weeded out eventually  In media, incorrect claims often persist because failures to replicate not newsworthy, often not recorded  What is sensational often persists Pseudosciences  Non-science: claims that are largely devoid of research support  Non-sciences masquerading as science; are intellectual imposters of science  Lack safeguards against confirmation bias  Distinctions from sciences are at times fuzzy (like day and night, can still be distinguished)  But are marked by a set of probabilistic indicators (warning signs to practitioners and general public) Seven Sins of Pseudoscience  1. Lack of falsifiability: claims must be stated in a way that can be falsified (refuted)  eye movement theory: can help with anxiety by training eye movement. Our current technology cannot falsify this claim  Rorschach test  2. Emphasis on confirmation rather than refutation  Facilitated communication  3. Absence of self-correction: intellectual stagnation is a frequent characteristic  Anecdotes: don’t tell us anything about cause and effect, how representative the cases are, or how difficult they are to verify  4. Case studies and testimonials  5. Reversed burden of proof: burden is on the skeptic, not on the proponent  Ignoratium fallacy: claim is likely to be correct just because there is not overwhelming evidence against  Burden of proof should be on the person who is making the claim  6.The use of obscurantist language – gives the appearance that something is scientific but is really not  7.Absence of boundary condition – claim to be effective for all people Appeal of Non-Empirically Supported Methods  therapists want to help  treatments give hope to people  desire for “quick fix”  therapists are busy, managed care pressures, reading literature a “luxury”  lag between new treatment, evaluation Misperceptions of Actual Client Change  placebo effects: up to 80% effectiveness of antidepressants  novelty effects: patients excited about a new intervention, 15% of patients improve between initial phone call and first session  spontaneous remission: psychotherapy estimates range 15-70%  many disorders are cyclical in nature (bipolar, cyclothymic)  regression to the mean: what goes up, must come down; people often come to therapy when they are feeling their worst, so they are only going to get better  maturation effects: naturally occurring psychological growth (patients with borderline personality)  history: positive events occur outside of the therapy  effort justification: people want to get something out of the time spent on therapy  multiple treatment interference  illusory
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 180

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit