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PSYC180 Lecture – Food Science and Placebos.docx

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PSYC 180
Amir Raz

PSYC180 Lecture – Cory Harris (Food) Myths, controversies, and placebo effects in diet and food culture  CAM treatments = placebos (general conclusion)  Food and medicine are largely inseparable throughout history and across culture  Most deaths are food-related (heart diseases, cancer, stroke, diabetes) Iron deficiency, vitamin/mineral deficiencies and toxicities, poor resistance to disease (food-related) Only two lifestyle choices influence long-term health more than dietary choices  Smoking  Alcohol consumption  Vegetarians are missing vitamin B12 Many factors contribute to food choices  Convenience  Habit  Nutritional value Placebo effects within foods  Your beliefs about food will influence your reactions Food aversions – bad experiences often ruin our experiences with food (nothing to do with food itself) Food taboos – related to whether your culture accepts the food you eat Comfort/culture/traditional/ceremonial foods – foods related to culture or your traditions Dieting and weight loss  Rebound effect is not due to food  Health foods: foods that fight cancer, make you feel better (energy drinks) Clinical research: trying to develop placebos to prove health food claims  Provide evidence through animal trials, cell trials, traditional use claims “Total Drug Effect”  Net sum of the interactions between the drug, the patient and the doctor (microcontext = physical environment)  When drug is removed, placebo effect is created  Drug  food, doctor  source, patient  consumer Care provider-patient interactions  “doctor-patient relationship”  central to clinical practice  defined and accepted roles (authority, credentials)  regulated (professional and legal)  increasingly the subject of academic research Source-consumer interactions  variable concept (who/what is the source? What is the relationship to the consumer and food?)  regulated to some extent (legal)  largely unexplored outside of market research  seldom health outcomes  often sales driven Practitioner attributes  words, attitudes, behaviours  positive treatment improved more than negative  positive diagnosis improved more than negative diagnosis Source Attributes – same idea as practitioners Family Influences  food preferences  food availability and accessibility  parental preference, beliefs, and attitudes  parents, siblings, peers as models  mealtime structure (snacking, TV, eating out)  good structure correlates to positive health  resource constraints (time, education, income) Eating regularly correlates with lower waist circumferences and BMI later in life Commercial influences (decisions not made for your health)  social responsibility, weight gain Care provider – drug interactions Knowledge and expectation  patients responded depending on doctors knowledge and expectations Source – Food  food presentations (symbolic)  labeling, packaging, marketing  food production methods (chemical)  farming, processing, storage, cooking  eating environment Patient – Drug Patient Attributes  age, weight, health status, diet, genetics  Ex. Beta blockers for hypertension (polymorphisms contribute to drug sensitivity)  Experience, knowledge, expectations (hidden treatment is less effective) Consumer Attributes  Age, weight, health status, diet, genetics and epigenetics  Example – lactase deficiency (people who believe they are lactose intolerant also experience symptoms at home) Taste perception  Genetics affect perception of bitter, sweet, and umami tastes (less is known about sour and salty)  25 known bitter taste receptor genes  TAS2R38 is broadly tuned to perceive thiourea compounds (bitter)  found in broccoli, spinach, cabbage)  3 taster groups: supertasters (heightened response), medium tasters, nontasters (no reaction) Knowledge (calorie intake)  no calories = ordered/consumed most  labels = ordered less/indulged in dessert  labels + info = ordered less/ate less Preferences  no genetic correlation to intake of vegetables, soy or other sweet/fat foods  correlation to green tea, mayonnaise, and whipped cream Treatment Attributes (energy, cell and system function and maintenance, pharmacological and toxicological activity, taste, aroma, colour, texture)  macronutrients  micronutrients  water  non-nutrients Biochemistry  food-food and food-drug interactions  heme-iron (meat) is more readily absorbed than non-heme-iron (vegetables)  presence of vitamin C enhances iron uptake  animal protein is more readily digested than plant protein (consume more of it to compensate)  cooking under dry heat reduces digestible whereas wet heat increases it  olive oil degrades monounsaturated fats Flavour  foods provide taste, odour, texture and colour as gustatory, olfactory, somatosensory that together determine individual flavor perception  genetic and environmental components  experience-based learning (conscious and unconscious) Colour (certain colours affect taste)  pink or red pills tend
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