PSYC 180 Lecture Notes - Geriatric Psychiatry, Migraine, Saturated Fat

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8 May 2012
PSYC180 Lecture Cory Harris (Food)
Myths, controversies, and placebo effects in diet and food culture
CAM treatments = placebos (general conclusion)
Food and medicine are largely inseparable throughout history and across culture
Most deaths are food-related (heart diseases, cancer, stroke, diabetes)
Iron deficiency, vitamin/mineral deficiencies and toxicities, poor resistance to disease (food-related)
Only two lifestyle choices influence long-term health more than dietary choices
Alcohol consumption
Vegetarians are missing vitamin B12
Many factors contribute to food choices
Nutritional value
Placebo effects within foods
Your beliefs about food will influence your reactions
Food aversions bad experiences often ruin our experiences with food (nothing to do with food itself)
Food taboos related to whether your culture accepts the food you eat
Comfort/culture/traditional/ceremonial foods foods related to culture or your traditions
Dieting and weight loss
Rebound effect is not due to food
Health foods: foods that fight cancer, make you feel better (energy drinks)
Clinical research: trying to develop placebos to prove health food claims
Provide evidence through animal trials, cell trials, traditional use claims
“Total Drug Effect”
Net sum of the interactions between the drug, the patient and the doctor (microcontext = physical
When drug is removed, placebo effect is created
Drug food, doctor source, patient consumer
Care provider-patient interactions
“doctor-patient relationship”
central to clinical practice
defined and accepted roles (authority, credentials)
regulated (professional and legal)
increasingly the subject of academic research
Source-consumer interactions
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variable concept (who/what is the source? What is the relationship to the consumer and food?)
regulated to some extent (legal)
largely unexplored outside of market research
seldom health outcomes
often sales driven
Practitioner attributes
words, attitudes, behaviours
positive treatment improved more than negative
positive diagnosis improved more than negative diagnosis
Source Attributes same idea as practitioners
Family Influences
food preferences
food availability and accessibility
parental preference, beliefs, and attitudes
parents, siblings, peers as models
mealtime structure (snacking, TV, eating out) good structure correlates to positive health
resource constraints (time, education, income)
Eating regularly correlates with lower waist circumferences and BMI later in life
Commercial influences (decisions not made for your health)
social responsibility, weight gain
Care provider drug interactions
Knowledge and expectation
patients responded depending on doctors knowledge and expectations
Source Food
food presentations (symbolic) labeling, packaging, marketing
food production methods (chemical) farming, processing, storage, cooking
eating environment
Patient Drug
Patient Attributes
age, weight, health status, diet, genetics
Ex. Beta blockers for hypertension (polymorphisms contribute to drug sensitivity)
Experience, knowledge, expectations (hidden treatment is less effective)
Consumer Attributes
Age, weight, health status, diet, genetics and epigenetics
Example lactase deficiency (people who believe they are lactose intolerant also experience symptoms
at home)
Taste perception
Genetics affect perception of bitter, sweet, and umami tastes (less is known about sour and salty)
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