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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 - Feb 26.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 211
Professor
Yogita Chudasama
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC211 Lecture 12 - Feb. 26 What is Arousal? • Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake Arousal is nonuniform; we can be alert and attentive, or fail to notice what is going on around us • are located in the dorsal • Sleepiness has an effect on wakefulness: struggling to stapons, the basal forebrain andof concentration in the medial septum. • Five different neurotransmitters play a role in our level of arousal: Neural Control of Arousal: Acetylcholine (ACh) • Acetylcholine (ACh) !  Acetylcholinergic neurons and • Neorepinephrine (NE) agonists decrease and • Serotonin (5-HT) are locateincrease cortical arousal, Histamine pons, the basal forebrain andasured • in the medial septum.vity). • Hypocretin Neural Control of Arousal: Acetylcholine (ACh): • Acetylcholinergic neurons are located in the dorsal pons, the basal forebrain and in the medial associated with animals level of arousal (as measured byl of Arousal: Acetylcholine (ACh) septum microdialysis). increase cortical arousal, !  Acetylcholinergic neurons • Ach antagonists and agonists decrease and respectively (as measured increase cortical arousal, respectively (as measured pons region activates and are located in the dorsal by EEG activity)stimulates ACh release in cerebral cortex. This can be be blocked by pons, the basal forebrain and deactivating cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. • Ach release in striatum, hippocampus and frontal in the medial septum. !  Acortex is associated with animals level of arousal (as is ameasured by microdialysis)el of arousal (as measured by !  ACh antagonists and microdialysis). • Electrical stimulation of the dorsal pons region agonists decrease and activates and stimulates ACh release in cerebral increase cortical arousal, !  Ecortex. This can be blocked by deactivatinggion activates and stimulates ACh release in cerebral cortex. This can be be blocked by respectively (as measured deactivating cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. by EEG activity). Neural Control of Arousal: Enorepinephrine (NE): !  NE neurons are located in • NE neurons are located in Locus Coeruleus (LC) Locus Coeruleus (LC). • NE neurons show an increase in firing rate when alert/awake and a decline in firing rate during !  NE neurons show anriatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex is sleep iassociated with animals level of arousal (as measured by • LC activity is related to vigilance - continuous attentionalert/awake and a decline in • Firing of LC neurons in monkeys is high during best performance. If the monkey has been working Neural Control of Arousal: Norepinephrine (NE) does firin! ratElectrical stimulation of the dorsal pons region activates and !  LC activity is related to vigilance - continuous !  NE neurons are located inh release in cerebral cortex. This can be be blocked by attention. deactivating cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. Locus Coeruleus (LC). !  Firing of LC neurons in monkeys is high during best !  NE neurons show an performance. If the monkey increase in firing rate when has been working for a long alert/awake and a decline in time, performance declines firing rate during sleep. and so does firing rate. !  NLC activity is related to Serotonin (5-HT): Neural Control of Arousal: Norepinephrine (NE) vigilance - continuousyptamine) neurons are found in raphe nuclei • Stimulation of raphe nuclei causes locomotion and cortical arousal (measured by EEG) !  NE neurons are located in attention. Locus Coeruleus (LC). !  Firing of LC neurons in 2 monkeys is high during best !  NE neurons show an performance. If the monkey increase in firing rate when !  5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) neurons are found in raphe nuclei. !  Stimulation of raphe nuclei causes locomotion and • 5-HT neuron activation facilitates continuous movement cortical arousal (measured • 5-HT neuron activity declines when responding to novel stimuli (i.e. Orienting your response) Neural! on5-HT neuron activationonin (5-HT) facilitates continuous movement. !  5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) neurons are found in raphe !  5-HT neuron activity declines nuclei. when responding to novel stimuli (i.e. orienting your !  Stimulation of raphe nuclei response). causes locomotion and cortical arousal (measured by EEG). ! Neu5-HT neuron activation: Histamine • Histaminergic neurons are located in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus facilitates continuous movement.ctions to basal forebrain influence ACh release in the cerebral cortex • Histamine receptor blockers decrease waking and increase sleep • Histaminergic neuron actNeural Control of Arousal: Histamineduring sleep !  5-HT neuron activity declines when responding to novelice fall asleep within a few minutes!  Histaminergic neurons are Neural Control of Arousal: Hypocretin located in the stimuli (i.e. orienting your tuberomammillary nucleus response).etinergic neurons are located in the lateral hypothalamus • The axons terminate in areas that are involved in arousal (TMN) of the hypothalamus. • High levels of hypocretin is released during active waking and REM sleep !  Projections to basal forebrain • Hypocretin plays a role in motor activity influence ACh release in the • Hypocretin infusion into the LC increases muscle tone cerebral cortex. Neural Control of Sleep/Waking Behaviour: • The group of neurons in the preoptic area (located rostral to the hypothalamus) is involved in sleep behaviour !  Histamine receptor blockers decrease waking and increase sleep. • Destruction o! thHistaminergic neuron activity is high during waking and low during • In cats, Neural Control of Arousal: Histaminedeath Sleep/waking flip-flop (Saper et al., 2001) • Electrical stimulation of preoptic area causes ! owsHistaminergic neurons are sometimes may cause immediate sleep mice fall asleep within a few minutes.
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