Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
McGill (30,000)
PSYC (4,000)
PSYC 211 (200)
Lecture 12

PSYC 211 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Pedunculopontine Nucleus, Circadian Rhythm, Thalamus


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 211
Professor
Yogita Chudasama
Lecture
12

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 4 pages of the document.
PSYC211 Lecture 12 - Feb. 26
What is Arousal?
Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake
Arousal is nonuniform; we can be alert and attentive, or fail to notice what is going on around us
Sleepiness has an effect on wakefulness: struggling to stay awake can affect our level of
concentration
Five different neurotransmitters play a role in our level of arousal:
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Neorepinephrine (NE)
Serotonin (5-HT)
Histamine
Hypocretin
Neural Control of Arousal: Acetylcholine (ACh):
Acetylcholinergic neurons are located in the dorsal pons, the basal forebrain and in the medial
septum
Ach antagonists and agonists decrease and
increase cortical arousal, respectively (as measured
by EEG activity)
Ach release in striatum, hippocampus and frontal
cortex is associated with animals level of arousal (as
measured by microdialysis)
Electrical stimulation of the dorsal pons region
activates and stimulates ACh release in cerebral
cortex. This can be blocked by deactivating
cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain
Neural Control of Arousal: Enorepinephrine (NE):
NE neurons are located in Locus Coeruleus (LC)
NE neurons show an increase in firing rate when alert/awake and a decline in firing rate during
sleep
LC activity is related to vigilance - continuous attention
Firing of LC neurons in monkeys is high during best performance. If the monkey has been working
for a long time, performance declines and so does firing rate
2
Neural Control of Arousal: Acetylcholine (ACh)
!ACh release in striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex is
associated with animals level of arousal (as measured by
microdialysis).
!Electrical stimulation of the dorsal pons region activates and
stimulates ACh release in cerebral cortex. This can be be blocked by
deactivating cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain.
!Acetylcholinergic neurons
are located in the dorsal
pons, the basal forebrain and
in the medial septum.
!ACh antagonists and
agonists decrease and
increase cortical arousal,
respectively (as measured
by EEG activity).
Neural Control of Arousal: Norepinephrine (NE)
!NE neurons are located in
Locus Coeruleus (LC).
!NE neurons show an
increase in firing rate when
alert/awake and a decline in
firing rate during sleep.
!LC activity is related to
vigilance - continuous
attention.
!Firing of LC neurons in
monkeys is high during best
performance. If the monkey
has been working for a long
time, performance declines
and so does firing rate.
2
Neural Control of Arousal: Acetylcholine (ACh)
!ACh release in striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex is
associated with animals level of arousal (as measured by
microdialysis).
!Electrical stimulation of the dorsal pons region activates and
stimulates ACh release in cerebral cortex. This can be be blocked by
deactivating cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain.
!Acetylcholinergic neurons
are located in the dorsal
pons, the basal forebrain and
in the medial septum.
!ACh antagonists and
agonists decrease and
increase cortical arousal,
respectively (as measured
by EEG activity).
Neural Control of Arousal: Norepinephrine (NE)
!NE neurons are located in
Locus Coeruleus (LC).
!NE neurons show an
increase in firing rate when
alert/awake and a decline in
firing rate during sleep.
!LC activity is related to
vigilance - continuous
attention.
!Firing of LC neurons in
monkeys is high during best
performance. If the monkey
has been working for a long
time, performance declines
and so does firing rate.
Neural Control of Arousal: Serotonin (5-HT):
5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) neurons are found in raphe nuclei
Stimulation of raphe nuclei causes locomotion and cortical arousal (measured by EEG)
2
Neural Control of Arousal: Acetylcholine (ACh)
!ACh release in striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex is
associated with animals level of arousal (as measured by
microdialysis).
!Electrical stimulation of the dorsal pons region activates and
stimulates ACh release in cerebral cortex. This can be be blocked by
deactivating cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain.
!Acetylcholinergic neurons
are located in the dorsal
pons, the basal forebrain and
in the medial septum.
!ACh antagonists and
agonists decrease and
increase cortical arousal,
respectively (as measured
by EEG activity).
Neural Control of Arousal: Norepinephrine (NE)
!NE neurons are located in
Locus Coeruleus (LC).
!NE neurons show an
increase in firing rate when
alert/awake and a decline in
firing rate during sleep.
!LC activity is related to
vigilance - continuous
attention.
!Firing of LC neurons in
monkeys is high during best
performance. If the monkey
has been working for a long
time, performance declines
and so does firing rate.
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version