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Lecture 14

PSYC 211 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Dependent And Independent Variables, Arson, Thalamus


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 211
Professor
Yogita Chudasama
Lecture
14

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PSYC211 Lecture 14 - Mar. 5
An Evolutionary Perspective: Charles Darwin (1887)
The Principle of Antithesis: Opposite messages are signaled by opposite movements and postures
Theories of Emotion: The Commonsense View
Perception of the emotion-eliciting event (e.g. See a bear)
Subjective feelings of emotion (e.g. Fear)
Behavioural and adaptive physiological responses (e.g. Trembling, sweating and running away)
Therefore, the emotional feelings cause the emotional response
Theories of Emotion: The James-Lange Theory
Perception of emotion-eliciting event (e.g. See a bear)
Appropriate set of physiological responses are triggered (e.g. Sweating, trembling, increased heart
rate)
The emotional event also triggers adaptive behaviours (e.g. Clench fists, run away)
The brain receives feedback from the peripheral nervous system which constitutes our
feelings of emotion
Walter Cannon’s Problems With The James-Lange Theory:
The internal organs (or viscera) are relative insensitive and do not respond quickly enough to
account for our emotional feelings
Cutting the sensory nerves between the internal organs and the CNS does not abolish
emotional behaviour in animals
Support For James-Lange Theory:
Hoffman (1966)
Studied paraplegics who had spinal cord surgery at different levels
Patients were asked about their emotional feelings
Those with highest transections (i.e. Surgery high up the spinal cord) showed less
intense emotional feelings
Other subjects showed angry behaviour (the emotional response) without feeling angry
Thus, the emotional experience lacked the intensity that was experienced before the
surgery
The Limbic System and Emotion: The Papez Circuit (1937)
Sensory input diverged into different pathways or ‘streams’: a stream of thought and a stream of feeling
The pathway could be transmitted upstream (towards the cortex) or downstream (to the brain stem and spinal cord)
Pathway from hypothalamus to cingulate cortex involved in subjective emotional experience
Connections back to the hypothalamus via hippocampus enabled expression of emotion
The Kluver-Bucy Syndrome:
In 1939, Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy showed that monkeys with temporal lobe lesions (included hippocampus and
amygdala) showed:
Reduced fear
Hypersexuality
Hyperorality
Hyperaggression
Hypermetamorphosis
In 1950’s, the Kluver-Bucy syndrome could be induced with aspiration lesions of the amygdala
In 1970-1990’s, the amygdala was gradually dissociated from the hippocampus
1990’s onwards, excitotoxic lesions of the amygdala led to significant deficits in fear expression and ‘mild’ Kluver-Bucy
symptoms
The Forebrain: Limbic System
The fornix is a band of axons that carry signals from the hippocampus to the septum and mammillary bodies. Fornix means
arc
The septum is a midline nucleus attached to the corpus callosum and the fornix. It is connected to the amygdala and
hippocampus
The cingulate cortex is a large area of cortex that overlies the corpus callosum. Cingulate means encircling
The hippocampus (‘or seahorse’) is part of the temporal lobe. It is made up of the cornu ammonis fields
2
Theories of Emotion: The Commonsense view
1.Perception of the emotion-eliciting
event (e.g. see a bear).
2.Subjective feelings of emotion
(e.g. fear).
3.Behavioral and adaptive
physiological responses (e.g.
trembling, sweating and running
away).
Therefore, the emotional feelings
cause the emotional response.
Theories of Emotion: The James-Lange Theory
1.Perception of emotion-eliciting
event (e.g. see a bear).
2.Appropriate set of physiological
responses are triggered (e.g.
sweating, trembling, increased
heart rate).
3.The emotional event also triggers
adaptive behaviours (e.g. clench
fists, run away).
4.The brain receives feedback from
the peripheral nervous system
which constitutes our feelings of
emotion.
2
Theories of Emotion: The Commonsense view
1.Perception of the emotion-eliciting
event (e.g. see a bear).
2.Subjective feelings of emotion
(e.g. fear).
3.Behavioral and adaptive
physiological responses (e.g.
trembling, sweating and running
away).
Therefore, the emotional feelings
cause the emotional response.
Theories of Emotion: The James-Lange Theory
1.Perception of emotion-eliciting
event (e.g. see a bear).
2.Appropriate set of physiological
responses are triggered (e.g.
sweating, trembling, increased
heart rate).
3.The emotional event also triggers
adaptive behaviours (e.g. clench
fists, run away).
4.The brain receives feedback from
the peripheral nervous system
which constitutes our feelings of
emotion.
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