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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Feb 13.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 211
Professor
Yogita Chudasama
Semester
Winter

Description
Dr. Yogita Chudasama Stewart Biology, Room N8/4 PSYC211 Lecture 10 - Feb. 13 Somatotopic Organisation: Somatotopic Organization: The Motor Homunculus Central sulcus Stimulation of the Motor Cortex (Graziano and Aflalo 2007) Prolonged stimulation produces complex Stimulation of the Motor Cortex (Graziano and Aflalo 2007) movements Stimulation of the Motor Cortex: 1 Prolonged stimulation produces complex movements • Prolonged stimulation produces complex movement • Tight relationship between neurons in the primary motor cortex and the motor neurons of the spinal Organisation of the Motor Cortex cord that enable motor functioning (an example) Organization of the Motor Cortex: !  The primary motor cortex (M1) is the The primary motor cortex (M1) is the major input of cortical • major input of cortical sensorimotor sensorimotor signals and the major output of sensorimotor signals and the major output of signals is to the descending motor pathways that initiate sensorimotor signals is to the descending motor pathways that movement initiate movement. • The supplementary motor area (SMA) is located on thecortex (M1) is the major input of cortical sensorimotor medial surface of the brain signals and the major output of !  The supplementary motor area • The premotor cortex is located primarily on the lateral surfacee (SMA) is located on the medial descending motor pathways that surface of the brain. • The SMA and premotor cortex receivinitiate movement.ion from the parietal and temporal lobes !  The premotor cortex is located M1 also receives information from the somatosensory cortexarea • (SMA) is located on the medial primarily on the lateral surface. surface of the brain. !  The SMA and premotor cortex receive sensory information from the parietal !  The premotor cortex is located and temporal lobes. primarily on the lateral surface. !  Monkeys with lesions to the SMA are unable to perform The Supplementary Motor Cora simple two-sequence response: pushing in a lever and then turning it to !  The SMA is involved in the left learning sequences of movements. The Supplementary Motor Cortex (SMA): !  Monkeys with lesions to the SMA are unable to perform • The SMA is involved in learning sequences of movements a simple two-sequence response: pushing in a Handle used in experiment by • Monkeys with lesions to the SMA are unable to perform a simple two-sequence lever and then turning it to Chen et al (1995) the left response: pushing in a simple two-sequence response: pushing in a lever and then turning it to the left Neural Activity in Monkey SMA: • Monkeys were taught six sequences of three motor responses (e.g. Push-pull- Handle used in experiment by Chen et al (1995) in Monkey SMA (Shima and Tanji, 2000) turn, or turn-push-pull, etc.) !  Monkeys were taught six sequences • Neurons in SMA were recorded. The activity of these neurons encoded of three motor responses (e.g. push- certain elements of the sequence pull-turn, or turn-push-pull, etc). • The SMA was then temporarily inactivated with musical (a GABA agonist !  Neurons in SMA were recorded. The Neural Activity in Monkey SMA (Shima and Tanji, 2000) activity of these neurons encoded which inhibits neural activity) certain elements of the sequence. !  Monkeys were taught six sequences • After inactivation, monkeys could still reach for an object or make a of three motor responses (e.g. p! hThe SMA was then temporarily pull-turn, or turn-push-pull, etc).inactivated with muscimol (a GABA response, but they could not perform the sequence of three responses that agonist which inhibits neural activity). they had previously learned !  activity of these neurons encoded certain elements of the sequence.  After inactivation, monkeys could still Studies of SMA Activity in Humans: reach for an object or make a !  The SMA was then temporarily response, but they could not perform • In humans, learned sequences of button presses activate the SMA inactivated with muscimol (a GABA the sequence of three responses that agonist which inhibits neural activthey had previously learned. • When SMA is disrupted with TMS in people who learned to play 16 finger Firing pattern of single neuron in SMA.still presses on a piano, the subjects continue to play for about one second after This neuron fires only when a push stimulation but then reported that they “did not know which series of keys to response follows a pull responset perform they had previously learned.ses that press next” Firing pattern of single neuron in SMA. • The SMA and pre-SMA, a region just rostral to the SMA is thought to be involved in the desire to when a push response follows a pull response move. If we stimulate these regions, it provokes an urge to make a movement or you anticipate that a movement is about to occur The Premotor Cortex: • The premotor cortex is involved in learning and executing complex movements that are guided by 3 sensory information • Movement can be guided by nonarbitrary or arbitrary information • Monkeys with premotor inactivation using musical are able to move their hand towards a signal light located
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