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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Jan 18.doc

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PSYC 211
Yogita Chudasama

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PSYC211 Lecture 4 - Jan. 18 Anatomical Directions: • Neuraxis • An imaginary line that runs along the length of the CNS • Anterior (rostral) • Front end or toward the head • Posterior (caudal) • Tail end • Dorsal (‘back’) Top of the head and towards the back • • Ventral (‘belly’) surface • Front surface that faces the ground • Lateral • Toward the side Medial • • Toward the middle Geography of the Brain: •Contralateral • Structures on opposite side of the body (e.g. Left cerebral cortex controls movement of the contralateral hand means that it controls movement of the RIGHT hand •Ipsilateral • Structures on same side of the body (e.g. Olfactory bulb sends axons to the ip- silateral hemisphere means that the left olfactory bulb sends axon to the left hemisphere and the right olfactory bulb sends its axons to the right hemisphere The Meninges: • The brain is encased in a bony skull and floats in a pool of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) • The brain is chemically guarded by the blood-brain barrier • The brain receives a large supply of blood because it is unable to store it’s own fuel (needs lots of oxygen) • The meninges are the tough, protective connective tissues that surround the brain • The dura mater is a outer thick, tough but unstretchable tissue • The arachnoid membrane is the middle soft, spongy layer. It has a weblike appearance • The third layer that sits closest to the brain in the pia mater which comprises blood vessels • The arachnoid space between is filled with CSF The Ventricular System of the Brain: • The ventricles are interconnected hollow spaces filled with CSF • The lateral ventricles (comprise the first and second ventricle) are the largest • The cerebral aqueduct is a long, tube like structure that connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle • The CSF is produced continuously by the choroid plexus • CSF helps bath the brain, protect the brain, provide nutrients to the brain and helps it remove waste from the brain • The CSF is replaced every three hours (the half-life) • CSF leaves the fourth ventricle and flows through the subarachnoid space where it is reabsorbed into the bloody supply Anatomical Divisions of the Brain: • Brain is composed of five major divisions • Different swellings of the neural tube represent different phases of embryological development • Early Development of the brain: • The 5 major divisions of the adult brain: The Forebrain: Cerebral Cortex The cerebral cortex is highly convoluted with sulci (small grooves), fissures • (large or major grooves and gyri (ridges between sulci or fissures). The convolu- tions increase the surface area of the cortex • The cerebral cortex consists mainly of glial cells, axons, dendrites and a high con- centration of cell bodies. It is referred to as gray matter The white matter (beneath the gray matter) consists of a large concentration of • myelinated interconnecting axons Different Views of the Cerebral Cortex: The Primary Sensory Areas of the Cerebral Cortex: The primary visual cortex received visual information, the primary auditory cor- • tex receives auditory information, the insular cortex receives gustatory informa- tion and the somatosensory cortex receives information about the body senses • Different regions of the somatosensory cortex receive information from different parts of the body (e.g. Feet, hands, fingers) Primary motor cortex is part of frontal lobe, whereas somatosensory cortex is part • of the parietal lobe Cytoarchitectonic Analysis (Cellular Organization of the Cortex): • The cortex contains up to six cell layers (laminae) • Cell structure and organization varies between laminae • These laminae vary
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