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Chapter 14 Notes.docx

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PSYC 211
Yogita Chudasama

Chapter 14: Human Communication Notes taken by: Ashley Brown Contact for mistakes: [email protected] Speech Production and Comprehension: Brain Mechanisms Verbal behaviours constitute one of the most important classes of human social behaviour. - cultural evolution possible because of communication (talk/listen, read/write) - language makes discoveries cumulative, passing knowledge down from generation to generation The function of language is to induce others to do certain behaviours Most observation of language studies has been done on people who have suffered strokes or cerebrovascular accidents, which is brain damage caused by occlusion or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (no blood supply to that part so the cells die) Aphasia: difficulty in producing or comprehending speech not produced by deafness or a simple motor deficit; caused by brain damage - to be diagnosed a patient must have difficultly comprehending, repeating, or producing meaningful speech but not by a simple sensory or motor deficits or by lack of motivation - deficit must be relatively isolated (like they can understand what’s going on around them Lateralization Verbal behaviour is a lateralized function but both hemisphere matter - the left hemisphere is more specialised for speech production and speech comprehension, and the analysis of sentence structure - the right hemisphere is more specialised for perceiving emotions, gestures, and tones of voice o also appears to be involved in organizing a narrative like picking and stringing together the elements of what we want to say o control of prosody or the normal rhythm and stress found in speech Speech Production In order to talk which is meaningful language it requires several abilities: - the person must have something to talk about: either something currently happening or something in the past  perceptions and memories involved the posterior part of the cerebral hemisphere (occipital, temporal and parietal) o imagination appears to also involve regions involved with perceptions and memories - the conversion of perceptions, memories, and thoughts into speech makes use of neural mechanisms located in the frontal lobes Broca’s aphasia: a form of aphasia characterized by agrammatism, anomia, and extreme difficulty in speech articulation (varying in severity considerably from person to person) - caused by damage to (or around) a region of the inferior left frontal lobe called Broca’s area - agrammatism: a difficulty in comprehending or properly employing grammatical devices, such as verb endings and word order o they actually have a tough time comprehending word order as well - anomia: difficulty in finding (remembering) the appropriate word to describe an object, action, or attribute - can think of the three main deficits as a hierarchy o lowest/most elementary level  control of movements of speech, damage here leads to articulation difficulties o next higher level  selection of the particular programs for individual words, damage here leads to anomia o highest level  selection of grammatical structure, damage caused agrammatism - characterized by slow, laborious, and nonfluent speech - although words are often mispronounced they are usually meaningful, they just have difficulty expressing it - find it easier to say some types of words than others o hard to say  function words: prepositions, articles, or other words that conveys little of the meaning of a sentence but is important is specifying its grammatical structure such as : “a, the, some, in, about…” o easier to say  content words: nouns, verbs, adjectives, or adverbs that convey meaning - can comprehend speech much better than they can produce it - evidence that lesions of the basal ganglia esp. the head of the caudate nucleus can produce a Broca-like aphasia Wernicke suggested that Broca’s area contains motor memories, and in particular memories of the sequences of muscular movements that are needed to articulate words - talking involves the coordination of the rapid movements of the tongue, lip, and jaws with those of the vocal cords Broca’s area is involved in complex grammar and learning grammatical rules A critical location for speech articulation is the left precentral gyrus of the insula - insular cortex is behind the anterior temporal lobe - “Tip of the tongue phenomenon” or TOT: when you want to say a word but can’t think of it occurs a lot in people with loss of gray matter in this region - Still studies indicate Broca’s area is involved as well Apraxia of speech: impairment in the ability to program movements of the tongue, lips, and throat required to produce the proper sequence of speech sounds Speech Comprehension Recognizing a spoken word is a complex perceptual task that relies on memories of sequences of sounds  accomplished by neural circuits in Wernicke’s area - in the middle and posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus of the left hemisphere - important for comprehension of words and the production of meaningful speech - in the auditory association cortex Wernicke’s aphasia: a form of aphasia characterized by poor speech comprehension and fluent but meaningless speech - does not strain to articulate words, unlaboured speech - maintains a melodic line with voice rising and falling normally - speech appears to be grammatical like they use function words and subordinate clauses and all that good stuff - use few content words and the words that they string together make little to no sense - often seem unaware of their deficit, don’t recognize that their speech is faulty or that they don’t comprehend the speech of others o never seem puzzled when someone says something o follow social conventions like taking turns to talk o remain relatively sensitive to the other person’s facial expression and tone of voice o begin talking at the pause when they are asked a question - classified as a receptive aphasia - caused by damage to Wernicke’s area which is suggest to be the location of memories of the sequences of sounds that constitute words - Consist of several defi
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