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Lecture 21

PSYC 211 Lecture Notes - White Matter, Herpes Labialis, Absence Seizure
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by Lindsay Sirois , Fall 2017
15 Pages
83 Views
Fall 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 211
Professor
Jonathan Britt
Lecture
21

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November 27th
Toward an understanding of writing
Writing depends on knowing
The words you want to use
Proper grammatical structure
Specific motor commands that control the hand
There can be very specific deficits in motor programs caused by brain damage. For
example, people can have trouble writing:
Letters but not numbers
Lowercase but not uppercase letters
Vowels but not consonants
Print but not cursive
Letters in the correct order
Trouble with writing is called dysgraphia.
When writing a word, spelling it can be accomplished by:
Phonetically sounding out the word
Phonological dysgraphia is a condition where people cannot spell words by sounding
the out oo i Broa’s aphasia. They a oly rite ords y iagiig ho
they look. Thus, they have to be very familiar with how the word looks or they cannot
write it. They cannot write non-words that sound fine, like blint or vak.
They have trouble using their muscles in deciding how to articulate the words
Visually imagining the word
Orthographic dysgraphia is a condition where people cannot spell words by visualizing
them (common in people with damage to VWFA). They can only sound words out,
which means they cannot correctly spell any words that have an irregular spelling (half --
haff; busy -- bizzy).
Traumatic brain injury
Closed-Head Injury
Caused by a blow to the head with a blunt object
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find more resources at oneclass.com
The head is not pierced
The damage is just physical compressions
The brain comes into violent contact with the inside of the skull (coup)
The brain then recoils in the opposite direction and smashes against the skull again (contrecoup)
Open Head Injuries
Penetrating brain injuries (also called open head injuries) obviously cause damage to the portion
of the brain that is damaged by the object or the bone
So there is some kind of penetration/piercing of the head
Blood can lead into the brain
There is not necessarily a coup and a contecoup
In addition, damage to blood vessels can deprive parts of the brain of their normal blood supply
Accumulation of blood within the brain can cause further damage by exerting pressure within
the brain
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health problem
In the United States alone, approximately 1.4 million people visit an emergency room for TBI, 270,000
people are hospitalized, and 52,000 people die from it.
Almost a third of deaths caused by injury involve TBI.
In survivors, scarring often forms within the brain, around the sites of injury, which increases risk of
developing seizures.
Many people receive brain injuries but are not diagnosed. Even mild cases of TBI (mTBI) greatly increase
a person's risk of developing brain problems down the road. For example, the likelihood of Alzheimer's
disease is much higher in a person who has received blows to the head earlier in life.
Athletes (often for violent sports like football) have more chances of having disorders like
Alzheier’s
Tumors
Tumor
Mass of cells whose growth is uncontrolled and that serves no useful function
Cells that can result in cancer
Cells that divide uncontrollably
Every time a cell divides, there is a risk that genetic information will not be copied perfectly
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
We have proteins that regulate this
Tumors are groups of cells with several mutations that caused cell regulation to go wrong
(apoptosis did not happen successfully)
Tumors can be benign or cancerous
Benign tumor
Noaerous literally, harless tuor
Has distinct border and cannot metastasize
Border ensure that tumor does not affect the rest of the body
No border: cancerous tumor
No divide between cancerous cells and healthy cells nearby
The major distinction between malignancy and benignancy is whether the tumor is encapsulated:
whether there is a distinct border between the mass of tumor cells and the surrounding tissue
If there is such a border, tumor is benign; the surgeon can cut it out, and it will not regrow
However, if the tumor is cancerous it grows by infiltrating the surrounding tissue, and there will be no
clear-cut border between tumor and normal tissue
When surgeons remove malignant tumors, some cancer cells are often missed, and these cells will
produce new tumors
Malignant tumor
Caerous literally, har-produig tuor
Lacks distinct border and may metastasize
What we call cancer
Metastasis
Process by which cells break off of a tumor, travel through the vascular system, and grow
elsewhere in the body
Any tumor growing in the brain, malignant or benign, can produce neurological symptoms and threaten
the patient's life
Tumors damage brain tissue by two means: compression and infiltration. Even a benign tumor occupies
space and thus pushes against the brain
Compression can directly destroy brain tissue, or it can do so indirectly by blocking flow of cerebrospinal
fluid and causing hydrocephalus
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
th November 27 Toward an understanding of writing Writing depends on knowing The words you want to use Proper grammatical structure Specific motor commands that control the hand There can be very specific deficits in motor programs caused by brain damage. For example, people can have trouble writing: Letters but not numbers Lowercase but not uppercase letters Vowels but not consonants Print but not cursive Letters in the correct order Trouble with writing is called dysgraphia. When writing a word, spelling it can be accomplished by: Phonetically sounding out the word Phonological dysgraphia is a condition where people cannot spell words by sounding them out (common in Brocas aphasia). They can only write words by imagining how they look. Thus, they have to be very familiar with how the word looks or they cannot write it. They cannot write non-words that sound fine, like blint or vak. They have trouble using their muscles in deciding how to articulate the words Visually imagining the word Orthographic dysgraphia is a condition where people cannot spell words by visualizing them (common in people with damage to VWFA). They can only sound words out, which means they cannot correctly spell any words that have an irregular spelling (half -- haff; busy -- bizzy). Traumatic brain injury Closed-Head Injury Caused by a blow to the head with a blunt object The head is not pierced The damage is just physical compressions The brain comes into violent contact with the inside of the skull (coup) The brain then recoils in the opposite direction and smashes against the skull again (contrecoup) Open Head Injuries Penetrating brain injuries (also called open head injuries) obviously cause damage to the portion of the brain that is damaged by the object or the bone So there is some kind of penetration/piercing of the head Blood can lead into the brain There is not necessarily a coup and a contecoup In addition, damage to blood vessels can deprive parts of the brain of their normal blood supply Accumulation of blood within the brain can cause further damage by exerting pressure within the brain Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health problem In the United States alone, approximately 1.4 million people visit an emergency room for TBI, 270,000 people are hospitalized, and 52,000 people die from it. Almost a third of deaths caused by injury involve TBI. In survivors, scarring often forms within the brain, around the sites of injury, which increases risk of developing seizures. Many people receive brain injuries but are not diagnosed. Even mild cases of TBI (mTBI) greatly increase a person's risk of developing brain problems down the road. For example, the likelihood of Alzheimer's disease is much higher in a person who has received blows to the head earlier in life. Athletes (often for violent sports like football) have more chances of having disorders like Alzheimers Tumors Tumor Mass of cells whose growth is uncontrolled and that serves no useful function Cells that can result in cancer Cells that divide uncontrollably Every time a cell divides, there is a risk that genetic information will not be copied perfectly We have proteins that regulate this Tumors are groups of cells with several mutations that caused cell regulation to go wrong (apoptosis did not happen successfully) Tumors can be benign or cancerous Benign tumor Noncancerous (literally, harmless) tumor Has distinct border and cannot metastasize Border ensure that tumor does not affect the rest of the body No border: cancerous tumor No divide between cancerous cells and healthy cells nearby The major distinction between malignancy and benignancy is whether the tumor is encapsulated: whether there is a distinct border between the mass of tumor cells and the surrounding tissue If there is such a border, tumor is benign; the surgeon can cut it out, and it will not regrow However, if the tumor is cancerous it grows by infiltrating the surrounding tissue, and there will be no clear-cut border between tumor and normal tissue When surgeons remove malignant tumors, some cancer cells are often missed, and these cells will produce new tumors Malignant tumor Cancerous (literally, harm-producing) tumor Lacks distinct border and may metastasize What we call cancer Metastasis Process by which cells break off of a tumor, travel through the vascular system, and grow elsewhere in the body Any tumor growing in the brain, malignant or benign, can produce neurological symptoms and threaten the patient's life Tumors damage brain tissue by two means: compression and infiltration. Even a benign tumor occupies space and thus pushes against the brain Compression can directly destroy brain tissue, or it can do so indirectly by blocking flow of cerebrospinal fluid and causing hydrocephalus
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