Speech Production: Brocas area is located in the prefrontal cortex. Responsible for speech. Retrieves the words from the posterior language area. Damage to Brocas area disrupts your ability to speak. Theyre aware they arent speaking properly, theyre struggling. Brocas aphasia. Slow, laborious, nonfluent speech. o Articulation: How you move your mouth to make the speech sounds. Articulation problems make it hard for someone to hear what you are saying. o Agrammatism: Not very good at using grammatical devices (word order, verb tenses, etc). People with Brocas aphasia, apparently, in studies, appear to have difficulties understanding things because they have difficulty with word order and verb tenses. But this isnt apparent when you first meet them. o Anomia: cant remember the word they want to use. Circumlocution (dance around the word you wanna use). If you only have this problem, its called anomic aphasia. The test we use is to describe the sink running ov er picture. o When we talk to ourselves in our head, oftentimes we have subvocal articulations (slight muscle movements involved in speech that are not obvious and dont make sounds). If our mouth is being moved while were asked about how a word sounds (without saying it, in our head), it could alter our answer. o Stuttering: Speech disorder characterized by frequent pauses, prolongation of sounds or repetition. Its not that they have an inability to speak; they can speak fine! They can sing fine, and read in cadence with a rhythmic sound. Its when it comes to initiating and executing motor speech that they struggle. Genetic, more prevalent in men. The motor cortex seems to be fine! Its sensorymotor integration thats the problem, its hearing their own voice. They cant seem to hear themselves. Normal people will stutter if you make them listen to headphones that play what they said, except with a 100ms delay. Stutterers will stutter LESS with these headphones. After speech therapy, that is after the stutterers recovered, researchers took an fMRI scan of their brain (they also had a before scan) and compared. The biggest change they observed was in the auditory cortex.