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Lecture 9

PSYC 211 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Anomic Aphasia, Prefrontal Cortex, StutteringPremium

13 pages16 viewsFall 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 211
Professor
Gary Brouhard
Lecture
9

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Speech Production:
Broca’s area is located in the prefrontal cortex. Responsible for
speech. Retrieves the words from the posterior language area.
Damage to Broca’s area disrupts your ability to speak. They’re aware
they aren’t speaking properly, they’re struggling.
Broca’s aphasia. Slow, laborious, non-fluent speech.
o Articulation: How you move your mouth to make the speech
sounds. Articulation problems make it hard for someone to
hear what you are saying.
o Agrammatism: Not very good at using grammatical devices
word order, verb tenses, etc. People with Broca’s aphasia,
apparently, in studies, appear to have difficulties
understanding things because they have difficulty with word
order and verb tenses. But this isn’t apparent when you first
meet them.
o Anomia: can’t remember the word they want to use.
Circumlocution (dance around the word you wanna use).
)f you only have this problem, it’s called anomic aphasia.
The test we use is to describe the sink running ov er
picture.
o When we talk to ourselves in our head, oftentimes we have
subvocal articulations (slight muscle movements involved in
speech that are not obvious and don’t make sounds.
)f our mouth is being moved while we’re asked about
how a word sounds (without saying it, in our head), it
could alter our answer.
o Stuttering: Speech disorder characterized by frequent pauses,
prolongation of sounds or repetition. )t’s not that they have an
inability to speak; they can speak fine! They can sing fine, and
read in cadence with a rhythmic sound. )t’s when it comes to
initiating and executing motor speech that they struggle.
Genetic, more prevalent in men.
The motor cortex seems to be fine! )t’s sensory-motor
integration that’s the problem, it’s hearing their own
voice. They can’t seem to hear themselves.
Normal people will stutter if you make them listen to
headphones that play what they said, except with a
100ms delay. Stutterers will stutter LESS with these
headphones.
After speech therapy, that is after the stutterers
recovered, researchers took an fMRI scan of their brain
they also had a before scan and compared. The
biggest change they observed was in the auditory
cortex.
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So we believe this issue is caused by problems lining up
what the person hears to the expectations, based on
what they said.
Writing:
Consists of knowing the words you want to use, proper grammatical
structure, and specific motor commands that control the hand.
Trouble with writing is called dysgraphia.
There are so many neurons whose damage can lead to dysgraphia in some
way.
People have reported trouble writing:
o Letters but not numbers
o Lowercase but no uppercase letters
o Vowels but not consonants
o Print but not cursive
o Letters in the correct order
Writing can be accomplished by (1) phonetically sounding out a word or (2)
visually imagining a word.
o )f you can’t do , it’s called phonological dysgraphia people can’t
spell words by sounding them out). They can only writing words by
visually imagining them. They cannot write non words, like blint or
vak. Probably involves Broca’s area because commonly seen in
people with Broca’s aphasia..
o )f you can’t do , it’s called orthographic dysgraphia. )t’s a
condition where people cannot spell words by visualizing them
(associated to damage to VWFA). They can only sound words out, so
spelling irregularly-spelled words is hard (half -> haff, busy- bizzy).
o Oftentimes, strokes are very large so we often don’t go into the
specifics of naming. We’ll just say the patient has a form of
Broca’s/Wernicke’s aphasia.
Learning and Memory Finish:
Review calcium channels and NMDA receptors.
Relational learning: Stimulus-stimulus learning, declarative memory.
Consists of the learning of relationships among individual stimuli.
Perceptual learning: getting better at perceiving things because you’ve
perceived them before.
Motor learning: Muscle memory? Getting better at making movements
because you’ve made them so many times, also called procedural learning.
Involves cerebellum, brainstem, etc.
Stimulus-response learning: Often talked about in reference to
classical/Pavlovian conditioning and operant/instrumental condition.
Pavlovian condition is based on a reaction we already have; just to a new
stimulus. )f it’s an emotional reaction, involves the amygdala. Some reactive
memories, like eye blinking in response to a tone, seem to be stored in the
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cerebellum because it’s not an emotional response. Instrumental
conditioning is BASAL GANGLIA, reinforcement learning.
Review: declarative memory is memory that can be verbally expressed. Non-
declarative memory is unconscious (includes, perceptual, stimulus-response
and motor memory).
People with hippocampal damage have trouble with spatial memory:
o People with anterograde amnesia can’t form new memories can’t
remember navigational information about their environment.
o Right hippocampus appears to control navigational memory! Learned
this based on a study where scientists hooked particicpants up to a
PET scanner and made them play a virtual game where they had to
walk around a town until they memorized it.
Amount of activity in right hippocampus was proportional to
how well they remembered
o Hippocampal damage disrupts ability to keep track of and remember
locations.
Morris water maze: You take a rodent and put him in a
bathtub, all something to the water to make it not clear (milky
white opaque). Hiding somewhere in this tub is a secret
platform to help them get out of the water.
If you leave that platform always in the same place,
animals will find their way to it gradually with ease by
looking at their surroundings. If you damage the
hippocampus, they’ll just swim around aimlessly.
Mazes can also be learned with stimulus-response learning
(such as giving them a treat when they walked 5 feet forward),
so don’t need spatial cues for this. ONLY )S ALWAYS RELEASED
IN THE SAME SPOT.
If you do the Morris maze by putting the rodent in a different
spot, the rodent will rely entirely on the hippocampus to find
his way to the platform. )f this area is damaged, he won’t know
what to do. )f in the same position they’re dropped, animals
with hippocampal damage will memorize the route not based
on visual cues so it will take longer.
Study: had to memorize a route to solve a maze, no matter
where they dropped you off at the correct answer was always
streets up, turn left, etc. Has nothing to do with surroundings.
People who have larger basal ganglia learn this task quicker
(stimulus-response learning). If you have a larger
hippocampus (spatial memory), you make more error on this
task. So, in this case, damage to the hippocampus might
actually help you perform better on the maze! Also, you do
better on spatial navigation mazes if basal ganglia are lesioned.
)n 97, O’Keefe and Dostrovsky showed that pyramidal cells
in the hippocampus fire a lot when we’re in a particular place.
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