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Lecture 2

PSYC 211 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Luigi Galvani, René Descartes, Pineal GlandPremium

8 pages34 views2018

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 211
Professor
Jonathan Britt
Lecture
2

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Lecture 2:
If textbook stresses the key word and he covers it in course, pay attention it
will be on exam.
Rene Descartes-
Visiting these royal gardens and he saw a moving statue and the story he
tells it that it was dark and couldn’t see clearly and on the corner of the eye
someone moved but it was a statue.
Brain works as a mechanical device- instead of cylinders-muscles
Water pipes- nerves
He dissected the brain and noticed that most of the structures are bilateral
and structual and brain nucleus
Pineal body- center of brain and comes down in the pool of water in the
middle of the brain
Only structure in the brain that there is only one of
In the center with all this fluid
Moving the pineal bodies is what controls all of the movement
The world is a mechanical entity
True in humans too with reactions
First general model put forward of how the brain can work as a mechanical
machine
Luigi Galvani-
Interested in electricity- using it and saying what if I shocked different part
or animals
Playing outside with electricity
Movement must mean electrical device
Electrical current can flow through wires
Someone actually measuring the speed of impulses and currents- use a
device named after Galvani- Galvanometer
Speed conduction in the nerve
Hearing and vision- fast nerve fibers
Some like pain transmission is one of the slowest transmissions in the body
Sensation of heat and pain at the same time and pain takes a longer time
to reach the brain
Johannes Muller-
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A lot of biologists classify and categorize- they look at brain anatomy
across animals and draw relations- we need more experimental science
Advocate of removing organs from the body and putting drugs or electiricy
Doing research like this instead of analyses
Doctrine of specific nerve energy-
All fibers for all senses look the same-
Gustav Fitsch-
How motor cortex works- electrical current to different parts of the brain
Motor cortex top of the brain you can see a part of the body move
First to map it out and some of the functions must be localized
Flournes-
Ablations- cutting out a piece of the animal and seeing what went wrong
Dissecting animal brains and seeing what functions were lost
Seeing what the animal can’t do any longer
Paul Broca-
Human approach- neurologist that had someone come to his office with
someone difficulty speaking and he analyzed what he could and couldn’t do
and when client died he dissected the brain
After studying the patient- left cebreral hemisphere- speech
Stroke happened in this area- didn’t lose the ability to understand speech
but couldn’t get the words out
Broca’s area
What person influenced the field of neuroscience the most?
Isn’t a neuroscientist but re-shaped of how all biology works
Charles Darwin
All animals are in common because they all evolved from the first living cell
on earth
Concept of evolution
Beginning-
How old is the universe and where does the formation of life happen
We think our universe is 14 billion years old
Our milky way galaxy in the first billion years
So its 13 billion years is- where all the stars is
Solar system and earth didn’t evolve after 4 and a half billion years with a
gravitational collapse
Prokaryotic cell
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Diameter of observable universe is 90 billion lightyears in every direction
we look
No sense of how big the entire universe is- we cannot meause beyond the
speed of light
One cell formed- formation of life
This happened once in the history of earth
All life is the same at the molecular level
First cell was a cell membrane a collection of fats that formed a cell
membrane or cell wall and inside loose DNA and proteins-proteins make
allk functions of the cell
Ribosomes form together to create Amino acids
Un-organized cell- no organelles
DNA floating around loose
Made of a Very few things- the fats, nucleic acids, proteins
Everything in a cell will be one of these 3 things
Other is sugar molecules waiting to be digested and other organic
molecules
Hydrogen
The backbone of all molecules is carbon-
Nitrogen plays a small role
2% otherscell signalling
Periodic table- different combinations
2% others- SALTS
potassium chloride- sodium chloride- phosphorus chloride and chloride
chloride
important for action potentials
phosphorus- ATP
the energy source of a cell
puts the energy into ATP molecule
a nucleic acid
stores the energy from the food it digests to all functions of the cell
2% others…
Red ones outside cells
Blue is inside cells
Cell does this on purpose to create electrical gradients
Populated the earth for a billion years
Eukaryotic cell formed- the complex cell
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