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PSYC 212
Evan Balaban

CHAPTER SEVENTHE AUDITORY SYSTEM MUSIC AND SPEECH PERCEPTIONMusical instruments have multiple resonant qualities produce complex tones that contain a fundamental frequencyproduce a set of harmonics that are exact multiples of the fundamentaldespite this instruments produce a single pitch sensation musical pitchequivalent to the pitch associated with the fundamental frequencyit is believed that the spatial arrangement of wave patterns on the basliar membrane produced by the harmonics is responsible for their coherence into a single pitch sensationoctave21 frequency ratiorepresents the fundamental interval of musical pitcheffective range of musical pitch spans seven octavesbeyond this range the harmonics are no longer suitable as musical soundsan octave can be further divided into intervals called notespositions of notes in an octavechromaequally tempered scaleestablished by BachWestern musical culturebroken into 12 equal divisions known as semitonesmusical notes are represented by staff notationallows musicians to play music without knowing pitch compositionmusicians have a welldeveloped sense of relative pitch as a result of listening to and playing tonal sequencesperfect pitchability to identify an isolated tone by name is much more difficult110000timbrea difference in tone qualityarises from difference intensity distributions of the harmonicseach instrument has its own characteristic intensity distribution for each harmonic of a notecauses subtle differences in the neural activation at the respective points in the basilar membranethree major categories of musical instrumentschordophonesaerophonespercussionsmusic relies on two distinct qualitiestonal superpositions simultaneous appearance of musical tones tonal sequences sequential appearances of musical tonesauditory system is able to distangle the individual components of a musical note in a superposition such as a chord and associate them with an individual noteconstant superpositions occur when they sound pleasantdissonance arises from harsh and clashing combinationsarise when two or more tones produce interference among their activational patterns on the basilar membranetonal sequences are responsible for the melodic quality of music whih in turn creates rhythm and tempothe sequential sound pattern of music resonates with some internal rhythm in the brain that in turn leads to the activation of higher emotional centresthree areas of research on speech perceptionspeech productionspeech comprehensionbrain structures responsible for eachspeech is the only structured sensory stimulus produced by humansvocalization process leading to speech involves the subglottal system larynx and vocal tractvocal folds glottis are controlled by muscles during exhalation to produce a buzzlike sound that is the shaped by different structures of the vocal tract to produce the audible sounds of speechspeech can be broken down into wordswords can be broken into syllablessyllables are broken into phonemesphonemes are the smallest unit of speechcan be represented symbolically by a single characterspeech can be represented by its pressure waveformthis does not contain frequency informationsound spectrographprovides a visual display of frequency as a function of timeintensity is represented by the darkness of the markings on the graphspecific phonemes appear as bands of resonant frequencies called formantsvowel sounds are composed of low frequencies and appear near the bottom of the spectrographconsonants are made up of higher frequencies that appear near the topall human languages are structured symbolic and arbitrary systemsthe goal of psycholinguistic research is to understand the mechanisms that underline human language usesentences are broken down into four different processing stageswords sounds and nonspeech sounds must be isolated and recognized sensory perceptionwords must be identified and their meanings understood cognitive psychologygrammatical rules must be applied to derive meaning from a sequence of words cognitive psychologymeaning must then be interpreted within the specific context cognitive psychologythe unique human ability of speech expression and comprehension arieses due to the presence of the specialized brain areas dedicated to languageWernickes aphasiaability to speakinability to understand languagedamage to Wernickes areaspeech recognitioncomprehension area L hemisphereBrocas aphasiaslurred and slow speechmaintenance of language understandingdamage to Brocas areaspeech production area L hemisphereCHAPTER EIGHTTHE VISUAL SYSTEM LIGHT OPTICS AND THE EYEfor many centuries it was believed that light was made up of particles
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