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Lecture 9

PSYC 212 Lecture 9: Chapter 2 – lecture 9

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McGill University
PSYC 212
Mathieu Roy

Chapter 2 – lecture 9  light: conceptualized as a wave or stream of photons o absorbed o scattered o reflected o transmitted o refracted  eyes that capture light o image: a picture or likeness o cornea: transparent “window” into the eyeball o aqueous humor: watery fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye, supplies oxygen & nutrients, removes waste o lens: enables the changing of focus inside the eye o pupil: where light enters the eye o iris: muscular diaphragm surrounding the pupil, regulates the light entering the eye by expanding/contracting the pupil o vitreous humor: transparent fluid that fills the vitreous chamber in the posterior part of the eye o retina: light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye containing rods & cones, receives the image from the lens, sends it to the brain through optic nerve (transduction)  fundus: back layer of the retina  photoreceptor: light-sensitive receptor  rods: for night vision  cone: for daylight vision, fine visual activity, color o s-cones: short wavelength-sensitive, blue o l-cones: long wavelength-sensitive, red o m-cones: medium wavelength-sensitive, green  duplex retinas: containing both rods and cones  fovea: high concentration of cones, no rods, highest visual acuity  eccentricity: distance btw retinal image and fovea o focusing light to the retina  emmetropia: normal vision  diopter: unit of measurement of the optic power of a lens, reciprocal of focal length  myopia: nearsighted, light focused in front of retina  hyperopia: farsighted, light focus behind retina  astigmatism: unequal curving of refractive surfaces of eye (cornea)  accommodation: eye changes its focus, lens gets fatter for close objects  presbyopia: age-related loss of accommodation, hard to focus on close objects  cataract: opacity of the crystalline-lens  retinal information processing o light transduction by rod & cone photoreceptors  outer segment: part of photoreceptor that contains photopigment molecules  inner segment: part of photoreceptor btw outer segment and cell nucleus  synaptic terminal: where axons terminate at the synapse for transmission of info by the release of a chemical transmitter  chromophore: light-catching part of visual pigments of the retina  rhodopsin: visual pigment in rods  melanopsin: photopigment sensitive to ambient light  hyper polarization: increase in membrane potential such that the inner membrane surface becomes more negative than the outer membrane surface  graded potential: electrical potential
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