PSYC 212 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: International Phonetic Alphabet, Vocal Tract, Vocal Folds

31 views4 pages
21 Mar 2019
Department
Course
Professor

For unlimited access to Class Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

Speech&and&Music&Perception
Follow&up&on&student&question&-- cannot&cure&tinnitus&with&a&cochlear&implant
The$sound$of$speech:$phonemes
Speech&is&something&specific&to&us&humans.&Estimated&that&there&are&around&5k&languages&in&the&world&
that&use&850&words
Another&word&for&a&speech&sound&is&a&PHONEME
DEF:&a&unit&of&sound&that&distinguishes&one&word&from&another&in&a&particular&language&[e.g.&kill&vs&
kiss]
§
To&get&around&confusing&differences&between&sound&and&spelling,&we&use&the&
International&Phonetic&Alphabet&[IPA]&
§
Nowadays,&there&are&a&little&bit&over&100&gaphemes&in&the&alphabet
Speech$production
(1)
Respiration:&the&diaphragm&pushes&air&out&of&lungs,&through&the&trachea,&up&the&larynx
(2)
Phonation:&the&process&through&which&vocal&folds&are&made&to&vibrate&when&air&pushes&out&of&the&lungs
At&the&larynx,&the&air&must&pass&through&2&vocal&folds&[aka&vocal&chords]
More&tension&=&more&high&pitched&sounds
Small&vocal&folds&=&High&pitched&voices&[children&<&women&<men)
The&spectrum&of&sound&passing&through&the&vocal&folds&is&harmonic&spectrum
(3)
Articulation:&the&act&or&manner&of&producing&a&speech&sound&using&the&vocal&tract
The&vocal&tract&=&the&area&above&the&larynx&[oral&+&nasal&tract]
Humans&can&change&the&shape&of&their&vocal&tract&by&manipulating&their&jaws,&lips,&tongue&body,&
tongue&tip&and&velum&[soft&palate]&- this&is&what&we&call&'articulation'
Resonance&characteristics&created&by&changing&size&and&shape&of&vocal&tracts&to&affect&sound&
frequency&and&distribution
[c&slide&7]&
What's&important&when&considering&formants&is&not&their&frequency&but&the&relationship&between&
each&formants&*****
The&spectrum&of&speech&sounds&changes&over&time
Spectrum&of&speech&sounds&change&over&time.&
Spectrograms&help&represent&that&third&dimension&[time]
§
Time&=&x
Frequency&=&y
§
§
Energy&[amplitude]&=&coded&by&color.&Red&=&lots&of&amplitude,&whereas&blue&=&low
§
§
Coarticulation
Speech&production&is&very&fast:&10-15&consonants&and&vowels&per&second&[can&be&doubled&if&you&talk&fast]
Lecture&16
Thursday, March 21, 2019
1:06 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows page 1 of the document.
Unlock all 4 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class