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Lecture

PSYC 213- Vocabulary.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 213
Professor
Jelena Ristic
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC 213 – Vocabulary Chapter Definitions Folk psychology 1 A set of assumptions and theories based on everyday behaviors of ourselves and others Information theory 1 The information provided by a particular event is inversely related to its probability of occurrence Bit 1 Binary digit’; an event that occurs in 2 equally likely outcomes provides one ‘bit’ of information Filter model 1 Based on the idea that information processing is restricted by channel capacity Channel capacity 1 The maximum amount of information that can be transmitted by an information- processing device Introspection 1 The act of observing one’s own thoughts and feelings as they seem to oneself Primary memory 1 Consists of what we are aware of in the immediately present moment (short term/immediate memory) Secondary memory 1 The knowledge of a former state of minds after it has been absent for some period of time (long term memory) Brown-Peterson Task 1 Subjects are given a set of items and then a set of numbers. Subjects begin immediately counting backwards by threes from the number. After a specific interval, subjects are asked to recall the original items Ecological Approach 1 Form of psychological inquiry that reflects conditions in the real world Affordances 1 Potential functions or uses of stimulus in the real world Information pickup 1 Process whereby we perceive information directly Schema 1 Our expectations concerning what we are likely to find as we explore Perceptual cycle 1 Process whereby our schema not only guides exploration of the world, but also is shaped by what it finds there Cognitive ethology 1 New research approach which links real world observations with lab based investigations Metacognition 1 Knowledge people have about the way certain cognitive processes work; how accurately you can assess your own cognitive processes Modules 2 The sections of the brain, each of which is responsible for particular cognitive operations Phrenology 2 Study of the shape, size, and protrusions of the cranium in an attempt to discover the relation of parts of the brain to various mental activities and abilities Localization of 2 The attempt to discover correspondences between specific cognitive functions function and specific parts of the brain, based on the assumption that there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between specific functions and specific parts of the brain Histology 2 Analysis of tissue structure Law of mass action 2 Learning and memory depend on the total mass of the brain tissue remaining rather than the properties of the cells Law of 2 Even though some areas of the cortex may become specialized for certain equipotentiality tasks, within limits any part of an area can do the job of any other part of that area Interactionism 2 Mind and brain are separate substances that interact with and influence each other Epiphenomenalism 2 ‘Mind’ is a superfluous by-product of bodily functioning Parallelism 2 ‘Mind’ and brain are two aspects of the same reality and flow in parallel Isomorphism 2 Mental events and natural events share the same structure Chapter Definition Broca’s aphasia 2 A deficit in the ability to produce speech as a result of damage to Broca’s area Broca’s area 2 Area of the brain’s left hemisphere that is responsible for how words are spoken Wernicke’s area 2 Area of the brain’s left hemisphere that is responsible for processing the meaning of words Wernicke’s asphasia 2 A deficit in the ability to comprehend speech as a result of damage to Wernicke’s area Interhemispheric 2 Communication between the brain’s hemisphere is enabled in large part by transfer the corpus callosum Split Brain 2 A condition created by severing the corpus callosum Emergent property 2 In Sperry’s sense, ‘mind’ comes about as a result of brain processes , but it is not itself a component of the brain. This means that the mind is not reducible to, or predictable from other features of the brain Emergent causation 2 In Sperry’s sense, once the ‘mind’ emerges from the brain, it then has the power to influence lower-level processes. Supervenient 2 In Sperry’s sense, mental state may influence neuronal events while being influenced by them Event related 2 Electrical signals recorded from the brain that occur after the onset of a potential (ERP) stimulus Positron emission 2 An imaging technique in which a participant is injected with a radioactive tomography (PET) substance that mingles with the blood and circulates to the brain. A scanner is then used to detect the flow of blood to particular areas of the brain Functional Magnetic 2 A non-radioactive magnetic procedure for detecting the flow of oxygenated Resonance Imagery blood to various parts of the brain (fMRI) Connectionism 2 The theory that cognitive processes are regulated by complex systems consisting of a large number of interconnected elements Neural networks 2 A system of connections between elements that models connections between neurons in the nervous system Hebb rule 2 A connection between two neurons takes place if both neurons are firing at approximately the same time Parallel processing 2 Many neural connections can be activated at the same time Serial processing 2 Only one neural activity may take place at any one time Visual agnosia 3 A deficiency in the ability to recognize visual information despitebeing able to see it Associative agnosia 3 A form of visual impairment marked by difficulty naming objects Time spaces 3 The perceptual experience of time units such as days of the week or months of the year as occupying spatial locations outside of the body Perception 3 Processing sensory information such that it produces a meaningful understanding of this information Stimulus 3 An entity in the external environment that can be perceived by an observer Theory of ecological 3 The proposal that perception involves directly absorbing the visual optics information present in the environment Ambient optical 3 All the visual information that is present at a particular point of view array (AOA) Texture gradients 3 Gradual changes in the pattern of a surface that is normally assumed to be uniform, which provides information about surface characteristics such as whether the surface is receding or curves Topological 3 The discontinuity created by the intersection of two texture gradients breakage Scatter-reflection 3 The degree to which light scatters when reflected from a surface Transformation 3 In the theory proposed by Gibson, the change of optical information hitting the eye when the observer moves through the environment Optic flow field 3 The movement of objects or of the observer through the environment produces changes in what is seen Percept 3 Meaningful interpretation of sensory information Memory trace 3 The trace that an experience leaves in the brain Hoffding function 3 When an experience makes contact with a memory trace, resulting in recognition Pattern recognition 3 The ability to recognize an event as an instance of a particular category of event Template 3 A model against which a stimulus is compared to determine whether it belongs to a particular category Prototype 3 A model that possesses all the typical characteristics of its class Template matching 3 Comparing a stimulus with templates; when they match, the stimulus is theory recognized as belonging to that category Multiple-trace 3 Traces of each individual experience are recorded in memory. No matter how memory model often a particular kind of event is experienced, a memory trace of the event is recorded each time Probe 3 Secondary memory can be activated by means of a probe from primary memory Echo 3 When a probe goes out from primary memory to secondary memory, memory traces are activated to the extent that they are similar to the probe Feature detection 3 Detecting patterns on the basis of their individual features theory Pandemonium 3 A model of pattern recognition consisting of three levels: data, cognitive demons, and decision demons Feature 3 A component or characteristic of a stimuli Cognitive demon 3 A feature detector in the pandemonium model that decides whether the stimulus matches its pattern Decision demon 3 A feature detector in the pandemonium model that determines which pattern is being recognized Contrast energy 3 The degree of contrast between letters in a word and the background they appear on leading to the relative ease with which a stimulus can be discriminated from the background against which it displays Squelching 3 The tendency of the nervous system to inhibit the processing of unclear features Geons 3 The basic geometric shapes that comprise objects Recognition by 3 A model of perception based on subdividing objects into a basic set of components (RBC) geometric shapes Recoverability 3 The degree to which geons can be made out I a degraded image of an object Top-down processing 3 When perception is driven by expectations and prior knowledge Context effects 3 The influence that the situation plays on the perception of a stimulus Bottom-up 3 When perception result from the combination of individual pieces of sensory processing information Moon illusion 3 The tendency for the moon to appear larger when on the horizon than when high in the sky Jumbled word effect 3 The ability to read words in sentences despite having mixed up letters of the words Parallel distributed 3 A model of perception that proposes that different features are processed at processing (PDP) the same
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