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Lecture

PSYC 213 Lecture Notes - Cocktail Party, Smooth Pursuit, Ataxia


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 213
Professor
Jelena Ristic

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PSYC 213 Vocabulary
Chapter
Definitions
Folk psychology
1
A set of assumptions and theories based on everyday behaviors of ourselves
and others
Information theory
1
The information provided by a particular event is inversely related to its
probability of occurrence
Bit
1
Binary digit’; an event that occurs in 2 equally likely outcomes provides one
‘bit’ of information
Filter model
1
Based on the idea that information processing is restricted by channel capacity
Channel capacity
1
The maximum amount of information that can be transmitted by an
information- processing device
Introspection
1
The act of observing one’s own thoughts and feelings as they seem to oneself
Primary memory
1
Consists of what we are aware of in the immediately present moment (short
term/immediate memory)
Secondary memory
1
The knowledge of a former state of minds after it has been absent for some
period of time (long term memory)
Brown-Peterson Task
1
Subjects are given a set of items and then a set of numbers. Subjects begin
immediately counting backwards by threes from the number. After a specific
interval, subjects are asked to recall the original items
Ecological Approach
1
Form of psychological inquiry that reflects conditions in the real world
Affordances
1
Potential functions or uses of stimulus in the real world
Information pickup
1
Process whereby we perceive information directly
Schema
1
Our expectations concerning what we are likely to find as we explore
Perceptual cycle
1
Process whereby our schema not only guides exploration of the world, but
also is shaped by what it finds there
Cognitive ethology
1
New research approach which links real world observations with lab based
investigations
Metacognition
1
Knowledge people have about the way certain cognitive processes work; how
accurately you can assess your own cognitive processes
Modules
2
The sections of the brain, each of which is responsible for particular cognitive
operations
Phrenology
2
Study of the shape, size, and protrusions of the cranium in an attempt to
discover the relation of parts of the brain to various mental activities and
abilities
Localization of
function
2
The attempt to discover correspondences between specific cognitive functions
and specific parts of the brain, based on the assumption that there is a strict
one-to-one correspondence between specific functions and specific parts of
the brain
Histology
2
Analysis of tissue structure
Law of mass action
2
Learning and memory depend on the total mass of the brain tissue remaining
rather than the properties of the cells
Law of
equipotentiality
2
Even though some areas of the cortex may become specialized for certain
tasks, within limits any part of an area can do the job of any other part of that
area
Interactionism
2
Mind and brain are separate substances that interact with and influence each
other
Epiphenomenalism
2
‘Mind’ is a superfluous by-product of bodily functioning
Parallelism
2
‘Mind’ and brain are two aspects of the same reality and flow in parallel
Isomorphism
2
Mental events and natural events share the same structure

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Chapter
Definition
Broca’s aphasia
2
A deficit in the ability to produce speech as a result of damage to Broca’s area
Broca’s area
2
Area of the brain’s left hemisphere that is responsible for how words are
spoken
Wernicke’s area
2
Area of the brain’s left hemisphere that is responsible for processing the
meaning of words
Wernicke’s asphasia
2
A deficit in the ability to comprehend speech as a result of damage to
Wernicke’s area
Interhemispheric
transfer
2
Communication between the brain’s hemisphere is enabled in large part by
the corpus callosum
Split Brain
2
A condition created by severing the corpus callosum
Emergent property
2
In Sperry’s sense, ‘mind’ comes about as a result of brain processes , but it is
not itself a component of the brain. This means that the mind is not reducible
to, or predictable from other features of the brain
Emergent causation
2
In Sperry’s sense, once the ‘mind’ emerges from the brain, it then has the
power to influence lower-level processes.
Supervenient
2
In Sperry’s sense, mental state may influence neuronal events while being
influenced by them
Event related
potential (ERP)
2
Electrical signals recorded from the brain that occur after the onset of a
stimulus
Positron emission
tomography (PET)
2
An imaging technique in which a participant is injected with a radioactive
substance that mingles with the blood and circulates to the brain. A scanner is
then used to detect the flow of blood to particular areas of the brain
Functional Magnetic
Resonance Imagery
(fMRI)
2
A non-radioactive magnetic procedure for detecting the flow of oxygenated
blood to various parts of the brain
Connectionism
2
The theory that cognitive processes are regulated by complex systems
consisting of a large number of interconnected elements
Neural networks
2
A system of connections between elements that models connections between
neurons in the nervous system
Hebb rule
2
A connection between two neurons takes place if both neurons are firing at
approximately the same time
Parallel processing
2
Many neural connections can be activated at the same time
Serial processing
2
Only one neural activity may take place at any one time
Visual agnosia
3
A deficiency in the ability to recognize visual information despitebeing able to
see it
Associative agnosia
3
A form of visual impairment marked by difficulty naming objects
Time spaces
3
The perceptual experience of time units such as days of the week or months of
the year as occupying spatial locations outside of the body
Perception
3
Processing sensory information such that it produces a meaningful
understanding of this information
Stimulus
3
An entity in the external environment that can be perceived by an observer
Theory of ecological
optics
3
The proposal that perception involves directly absorbing the visual
information present in the environment
Ambient optical
array (AOA)
3
All the visual information that is present at a particular point of view
Texture gradients
3
Gradual changes in the pattern of a surface that is normally assumed to be
uniform, which provides information about surface characteristics such as
whether the surface is receding or curves
Topological
3
The discontinuity created by the intersection of two texture gradients
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breakage
Scatter-reflection
3
The degree to which light scatters when reflected from a surface
Transformation
3
In the theory proposed by Gibson, the change of optical information hitting
the eye when the observer moves through the environment
Optic flow field
3
The movement of objects or of the observer through the environment
produces changes in what is seen
Percept
3
Meaningful interpretation of sensory information
Memory trace
3
The trace that an experience leaves in the brain
Hoffding function
3
When an experience makes contact with a memory trace, resulting in
recognition
Pattern recognition
3
The ability to recognize an event as an instance of a particular category of
event
Template
3
A model against which a stimulus is compared to determine whether it
belongs to a particular category
Prototype
3
A model that possesses all the typical characteristics of its class
Template matching
theory
3
Comparing a stimulus with templates; when they match, the stimulus is
recognized as belonging to that category
Multiple-trace
memory model
3
Traces of each individual experience are recorded in memory. No matter how
often a particular kind of event is experienced, a memory trace of the event is
recorded each time
Probe
3
Secondary memory can be activated by means of a probe from primary
memory
Echo
3
When a probe goes out from primary memory to secondary memory, memory
traces are activated to the extent that they are similar to the probe
Feature detection
theory
3
Detecting patterns on the basis of their individual features
Pandemonium
3
A model of pattern recognition consisting of three levels: data, cognitive
demons, and decision demons
Feature
3
A component or characteristic of a stimuli
Cognitive demon
3
A feature detector in the pandemonium model that decides whether the
stimulus matches its pattern
Decision demon
3
A feature detector in the pandemonium model that determines which pattern
is being recognized
Contrast energy
3
The degree of contrast between letters in a word and the background they
appear on leading to the relative ease with which a stimulus can be
discriminated from the background against which it displays
Squelching
3
The tendency of the nervous system to inhibit the processing of unclear
features
Geons
3
The basic geometric shapes that comprise objects
Recognition by
components (RBC)
3
A model of perception based on subdividing objects into a basic set of
geometric shapes
Recoverability
3
The degree to which geons can be made out I a degraded image of an object
Top-down processing
3
When perception is driven by expectations and prior knowledge
Context effects
3
The influence that the situation plays on the perception of a stimulus
Bottom-up
processing
3
When perception result from the combination of individual pieces of sensory
information
Moon illusion
3
The tendency for the moon to appear larger when on the horizon than when
high in the sky
Jumbled word effect
3
The ability to read words in sentences despite having mixed up letters of the
words
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