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April 5th Lectur1.docx

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PSYC 213
Jelena Ristic

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April 5th Lecture - Social Neuroscience  Interdisciplinary field  Unifies biological study of behaviour and social phenomena  Social psychology + neuroscience  Social psychology deals with things that are less tangible than cognitive psychology  Applies multiple level approach - biological, cognitive, and social levels  Applies neuroimaging methods to understand social processes  e.g. influence of social status on social behaviour - a study that has been widely covered  Monkey 'pay per view' - monkeys value an opportunity to acquire different classes of social visual images differently  Rhesus macaques sacrificed juice to view female perinea and faces of high status monkeys, but required more fluid to view faces of low status monkeys - preferred to look at a grey square rather than low status monkey faces  These monkeys have a very strict social status colonies  Follow up study - wanted to see if something similar could be tested with humans  Familiarity was a confined, but can't test with unfamiliar faces because that makes it hard to recognize the person's status  Suggestion - tasting people in the military; don't have to be familiar with the person because status is recognized from uniform  Sex difference - female students tended to follow the gaze of male professors Social Attention  Understanding mental states of others (Theory of Mind)  Understanding that others have a different mind from our own  We are not born with this ability  Social cognition investigates how we represent mental states of others  Underlies a lot of our social cognitive processes - how we relate to others  What is our ability to attribute beliefs to others ? Attribute false beliefs to others (even though we have a true belief)?  Kids of up to 4 years of age do not have this ability, they think everyone is the same  After 4, they understand that things can be deceptive and that others have different thoughts  At first it was thought that the Theory is an all or nothing - but now is understood to be a continuous learning process  ToMM (Theory of Mind Mechanism)  Fractioned into modular components  Each coming online at different at different times in development  Can have parts of the mechanism without yet acquiring ToMM  Founder -> S. Baron-Cohen  ToMM  SAM (Shared Attention Mechanism) - feeds into ToMM - computes triadic relationships (two people can understand by shifting attention to where others are looking - paying attention to the same object)  EDD (Eye Direction Detector)- feeds into SAM  Present at birth, very basic process - babies like to look at open eyes  Our ability to detect eyes and compute eye direction  We have this ability because human eyes have the largest iris to sclera ratio of any species - our eyes have morphologically evolved to enable us to recognize them very easily and compute their direction - evolved to enable us to communicate very quickly  ID (Intentionality Detector) - feeds into SAM  More complex - rides on top of EDD  Computes intentions of others based on dyadic relationships (between a person and an object)
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