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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Sept. 26.pdf

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McGill University
PSYC 215
Donald Taylor

PSYCH 215 LECTURE Sep 26/2011 Attitude Theories • Heider’s Balance Theory o 3 things to relieve distress o Things have to fit • Osgood’s Congruence Theory o Whenever 2 attitudes aren’t balanced, this creates psychological distress o Of the 2 items, the more polarized item changes less than the other o Meet depending upon how polarized o If 2 attitudes are entirely opposite (ex. Someone you love says something positive about someone you hate) those two attitudes are so incongruence you will discount connection, cannot resolve it. Deny connection. o Didn’t really mean something, still like person. o If someone negative does something negative, more negative or more positive? Don’t know according to Osgood. o Mathematical equation o Same ideas of H- precise but didn’t take off o 2 attitudes • Festinger’s Cognitive Dissonance theory o If there are 2 attitudes that don’t fit together, psychological distress o You have to do something to alleviate stress o Ideas that we already know, H and O had already introduced o Doesn’t say what you can do to resolve o Influential in short period of time, bedrock of social psychology sub-disciplines borrowing it immediately, political science ect, entered into social discourse o Least precise set of theoretical arguments, where none of what he said was different why impact? o Took off because of his graduate students experiments were ground breaking, made predictions that were different from what you would make at that time about behavior o Experiments proved right o Ex. February evening in Montreal, and you go see a new movie, line-up outside theatre, 2 hours waiting traditions psychology would say you will go into movie with attitude, associations are not good, cold miserable ect, people will say they hated the movie (understand once explain), dissonance longer you wait, the more you’ll like the movie, 1 attitude that says smart and reasonable person, we don’t do stupid things ect, I will only stand there if it is a good movie. In order to have attitude fit, attitude about self, and attitude about the movie. Decide and believe it was a great movie. ATTITUDES FIT. o Prediction is opposite to common sense and everything known up to date about psychology dissonance perspective, dissonance logic o EX Group of people that have strong identity/ commitment to group, how to create? Traditional psychology, try to find as many positive reinforcements that come from the group, the more positiveness the more the people will commit. Dissonance make it hard for person to get into the group, rituals, embarrass them, the more you degrade them, the more you punish them- the better they’ll like the group and more committed they will be. HAZING ECT. o Heider didn’t give interesting experiments, Osgood you just got ideas- Festinger’s grad students were immediately in the lab o The only way around the dissonance, is to decide you like it, or to develop a decidedly positive attitude about something o No dissonance= fits with reality, boring experience, low dissonance= $20 to lie, not that interesting, neutral attitude, high dissonance= $1 to lie, great experiment, opposite from what you expect- $1 maybe the experiment was interesting, maybe I’m not lying o Doesn’t address question of what you’re go
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