Wednesday, October 12
7:40-8:40pm LEACOCK 132
STILL CLASS WED 3:30
All lectures: including Wednesday?
Chapters 1,4,5, 12
PSYCH 215 LECTURE Oct 5/2011
Data is behavior. What we say and do, and form perception. We develop an attitude
through behavior. We do not know what to do with all the behaviors we encounter
everyday. How do we perceive it?
If you ask people to write at the top of the page who am i? Don’t write a story
just write who you are, you don’t write down behaviors, for the same reason
that social psychology doesn’t know how to study behavior.
Don’t write, I went to starbucks You describe yourself in traits:
characteristics, aggressive, friendly, intelligent
Don’t we assume a trait is related behavior, summary of a bunch of
behaviors: aggressive implies you exhibit aggressive behavior in different
situations- behavior summary- you are aggressive
Kids answer- in behaviors- Julie stole my doll this afternoon
Number of traits people write, who am I or who is other, use between 7-11
traits. Not extensive list.
o That’s the number of different elements that normal human beings
can hold in working memory 7-11, not smart enough to think of self in
more than 7-11 terms?
o If people are going to describe selves in 7-11, derived from behaviors,
why don’t we study traits? Manageable only 7-11 to deal with. Instead
of exposing lab to extensive list of behaviors, why not study limited
traits? Control inputs.
o How do you perceive someone by just switching one trait? All early
work focused on traits not behaviors. Here are some traits that a
o Traits: he is nice on the inside. Ugly.
o People want to hear about behaviors that exemplify the trait.
o Vague, not raw material- trait= warm. o Lots to learn studying traits: intelligent and punctual, what else do
you think he is? Probably an accountant. Can infer using traits. See
traits improvising with as consistent. Assume people are consistent.
But saying punctual, intelligent and warm. People confused.
o Come away dissatisfied. Not getting to root of matter: how people
behave and how that serves as bedrock as the perceptions we make
o Developing theories: after a bunch of these studies, theorists a
bunch of these traits, 85 traits and these are common traits in
English language. Form theories about central traits. Central
trait- if you put that trait in, or is opposite it makes huge
difference to perception. 4 the same and 1 different, changes
o Learn central trait- for yourself learn what to work on, 4 central and
75 that don’t matter, focus on 4 that are the bedrock of decision
making people use to form perception about me
o Any trait can be central- what is it paired with
o Warm and cold= central, bunch of traits, warm given, creates
ambiance, put cold, changes
o Punctual= not central
o What you select as surrounding trait really matters
o Ex. Give traits that suggest coldness, and use word warm, warm looks
central because it stands out- if you give warm- friendly, outgoing ect.
And then you give cold uptight trait, cold becomes central- stands out
o Sociable and talkative, and then say warm- doesn’t add much
o Stereotypes defined: consensus among members of one group about
the attributes of another group
Consensus of members among one group- never used in
Consensus about another groups attributes- not always just
Could be a consensus that must people in Quebec speak
French, not a trait, almost a behavior- to be more general
Attributes about another group- a genuine group process
beyond an individual process
If I have perception about attribute of another group- not
stereotype, NEED SHARED PERCEPTION
We laugh because we have shared perceptions of groups
If one were to take the stereotype, we presumably have a
reason, simplifies our world for us, difficult to do a
psychoanalysis on the essence of every single being, would
take forever group, make assumptions about traits attributes
and characteristics Race, cultural, gender stereotype bad features, as basis
Ex. Stereotype about bankers shared, useful, when go to the
bank and want a loan, dress a certain way, know how to talk,
assume things and it i