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PSYC 215- Vocabulary.docx

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PSYC 215
John Lydon

PSYC 215- Vocabulary Chapter Definition Social Psychology 1 The scientific study of the feelings, thoughts and behaviours of individuals in social situations Dispositions 1 Internal factors such as beliefs, values, personality traits, or abilities that guide a person’s behaviour Fundamental attribution 1 The failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on error behaviour, and the corresponding tendency to overemphasize the importance dispositions or traits in behaviour Channel factors 1 Certain situational circumstances that appear unimportant on the surface but that can have great consequences for behaviours, either facilitating or blocking it or guiding behaviour in a particular direction Construral 1 People’s interpretations and inference about the stimuli or situation they are in Gestalt psychology 1 Based on the German word gesault, meaning ‘form’ or ‘figure’, this approach stresses the fact that people perceive objects not by the means of some automatic registering device but by active, usually unconscious interpretations of what the object represents as a whole Prisoner’s dilemma 1 A situation involving payoffs to two people, who must decide whether to co-operate or defect. In the end, trust and co-operation led to higher joint payoffs than mistrust and defection Schema 1 A knowledge structure consisting of any organized body of stored information Natural selection 1 An evolutionary process that models animals and plants so that traits that enhance the probability of survival and reproduction are passed on to the subsequent generations Theory of mind 1 The understanding that other people have beliefs and desires Parental investment 1 The evolutionary principle that costs and benefits are associated with reproduction and the nurturing of offspring. Because these costs and benefits are different for males and females, one sex will normally value and invest more in each child than the other sex Naturalistic fallacy 1 The claim that the way things are is the way they should be Hindsight bias 2 People’s tendency to be overconfident bout whether they could have predicted a given outcome Hypothesis 2 A prediction about what will happen under particular circumstances Theory 2 A body of related propositions intended to describe some aspect of the world Correlational research 2 Research that does not involve random assignment to different situations, or conditions, and that psychologists conduct just to see whether there is a relationship between variables Experimental research 2 In social psychology, research that randomly assigns people to different conditions, or situations, and that enables researchers to make strong inferences about how these different conditions affect people’s behaviour Reverse causation 2 When variable 1 is assumed to cause variable 2, yet the opposite direction of causation may be the case Third variable 2 When variable 1 does not cause variable 2 and variable 2 does not cause variable 1, but some other variable exerts a causal influence on both Self selection 2 A problem that arises when the participant rather than the investigator selects his or her level on each variable, bringing with this value unknown other properties that make causal interpretation of a relationship difficult Longitudinal study 2 A study conducted over a long period of time with the same population, which is periodically assessed regarding a particular behaviour Natural experiments 2 Naturally occurring events or phenomena having somewhat different conditions that can be compared with almost as much rigor as in experiments where the investigator manipulates the conditions External validity 2 An experimental setup that closely resembles real-life situations so that results can safely be generalized in such situations Field experiment 2 An experiment set up in the real world, usually with participants who are not aware that they are in a study of any kind Internal validity 2 In experimental research, confidence that only the manipulated variable could have produced the results Debriefing 2 In preliminary versions of an experiment, asking participants straightforwardly if they understood the instructions, found the setup to be reasonable, and so forth. In later versions, debriefings are used to educate participants about the question beings studied Reliability 2 The degree to which the particular way that researchers measure a given variable is likely to yield consistent results Measurement validity 2 The correlation betwe
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