PSYC 215 Lecture Notes - Statistical Significance, Pluralistic Ignorance, Explanatory Style

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PSYC 215- Vocabulary
Chapter
Definition
Social Psychology
1
The scientific study of the feelings, thoughts and behaviours of
individuals in social situations
Dispositions
1
Internal factors such as beliefs, values, personality traits, or abilities
that guide a person’s behaviour
Fundamental attribution
error
1
The failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on
behaviour, and the corresponding tendency to overemphasize the
importance dispositions or traits in behaviour
Channel factors
1
Certain situational circumstances that appear unimportant on the
surface but that can have great consequences for behaviours, either
facilitating or blocking it or guiding behaviour in a particular direction
Construral
1
People’s interpretations and inference about the stimuli or situation
they are in
Gestalt psychology
1
Based on the German word gesault, meaning ‘form’ or ‘figure’, this
approach stresses the fact that people perceive objects not by the
means of some automatic registering device but by active, usually
unconscious interpretations of what the object represents as a whole
Prisoner’s dilemma
1
A situation involving payoffs to two people, who must decide whether
to co-operate or defect. In the end, trust and co-operation led to higher
joint payoffs than mistrust and defection
Schema
1
A knowledge structure consisting of any organized body of stored
information
Natural selection
1
An evolutionary process that models animals and plants so that traits
that enhance the probability of survival and reproduction are passed on
to the subsequent generations
Theory of mind
1
The understanding that other people have beliefs and desires
Parental investment
1
The evolutionary principle that costs and benefits are associated with
reproduction and the nurturing of offspring. Because these costs and
benefits are different for males and females, one sex will normally
value and invest more in each child than the other sex
Naturalistic fallacy
1
The claim that the way things are is the way they should be
Hindsight bias
2
People’s tendency to be overconfident bout whether they could have
predicted a given outcome
Hypothesis
2
A prediction about what will happen under particular circumstances
Theory
2
A body of related propositions intended to describe some aspect of the
world
Correlational research
2
Research that does not involve random assignment to different
situations, or conditions, and that psychologists conduct just to see
whether there is a relationship between variables
Experimental research
2
In social psychology, research that randomly assigns people to different
conditions, or situations, and that enables researchers to make strong
inferences about how these different conditions affect people’s
behaviour
Reverse causation
2
When variable 1 is assumed to cause variable 2, yet the opposite
direction of causation may be the case
Third variable
2
When variable 1 does not cause variable 2 and variable 2 does not
cause variable 1, but some other variable exerts a causal influence on
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