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Lecture 12

PSYC 215 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Cognitive Dissonance, Physical Attractiveness, Communication Source


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 215
Professor
Michael Sullivan
Lecture
12

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Lecture 12 & 13 Ch 6: Attitudes and attitude change February 15th & 20th, 2018
The nature and origin of attitudes
Attitude
An evaluation of a person, object, or idea.
Can be positive or negative.
Three components: Affective, cognitive, and behavioural.
Affectively based attitude
It’s ased priarily o people’s eotio ad feeligs aout the attitude ojetie.
Emerge from our values, morals, and beliefs.
Can also emerge from sensory experience (ex. Smell, taste) or aesthetic reaction (Ex. Colours
of a painting).
Have 3 things in common:
Not a result of rational examination of a topic.
Not governed by logic
Ofte related to oe’s alues, orals ad eliefs.
Ex. I like the Montreal Canadians
Cognitively based attitude
It’s ased priarily o a perso’s eliefs aout the properties of a attitude ojet.
We classify the advantage and limitations of the attitude object, usually for utilitarian purpose.
Ex. I like Toyotas because of their reliability and fuel economy.
Behaviourally based attitude
It’s ased priarily o oseratios of ho oe ehaes toard a attitude ojet.
Ex. I guess I believe in a healthy lifestyle because I go the gym everyday.
Explicit attitudes
The attitudes we consciously endorse
Ex. What is your opinion about the plan to install heated sidewalks downtown Montreal?
Implicit attitudes
Involuntary, uncontrollable, unconscious.
Ex. Often arise from cultural stereotypes that we were explored to as children.
Where do attitudes come from?
Genetic influences on attitudes?
Tesser (1993): Attitudes of identical twins more similar than attitudes of fraternal twins.
How attitudes are measured
Self-report measures
Attitude Scale: A multiple-item questionnaire designed to measure a perso’s attitude toard
some object.
Bogus Pipeline: A phoney lie-detector device that is sometimes used to get respondents to
give truthful answers to sensitive questions.
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Covert measures
Physiological arousal: Main problem: May just reveal intensity rather than direction of attitude.
Facial Electromyograph (EMG)
An electronic instrument that records facial muscle activity associated with emotions and
attitudes.
Cheek muscles vs. brow muscles.
The implicit association test (IAT)
Based on notion that we have implicit attitudes
Association between attitude objects and evaluations.
Measures the speed with which one responds to pairings concepts.
Link
between attitudes and behaviour
Is the assumption that attitudes influence behaviour a valid one?
LaPiere’s 19 prooatie ut flaed study.
Wiker’s 1969 olusio that attitudes ad ehaiour are oly eakly orrelated.
Kraus (1995): Attitudes significantly an substantially predict future behaviour.
Attitude ust orrespod to the ehaiour.
How do attitudes change?
Message source
Credibility
Likeability
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