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Lecture 8

PSYC 215 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Mirror Test, Symbolic Interactionism, Intersubjectivity

Course Code
PSYC 215
Mark Baldwin

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PSYC 215 – 180927
Lecture 8: Self-Construal Process (cont.)
Test 1 notes
~50 multiple choice questions
Textbook ch. 1-7 + lectures before Oct. 11
No need to know dates or names but should be able to recognize any studies
or theories that are mentioned in the test
Definitional, theoretical, study-based questions
Procedural Self-Knowledge cont. –
1) Observation
2) Assimilation and differentiation
3) Self-narrative
4) Self-perception
5) Social construction
How do we know who we are, internally? How do we recognize ourselves? Our
attitudes, preferences?
4) Self-Perception Theory:
Do you like X? how do you know whether you like it or not?
o You have an inter strong sense about what you like
Bem our internal cues can be weak or ambiguous, so we infer our own
internal states much as we infer those of others
o Ex. = does your friend like X? yes/no from seeing your friend’s
attitudes or motivation or emotion or preferences and making
we do the same observation on ourselves
Self-perception of attitudes influenced by the cognitive accessibility of
behavioral information?
Study Chaiken & Baldwin (1981)
o Linguistic manipulation
o Idea = by modifying the words we use, we can manipulate people to
characterize their own behavior in a certain way
o “I occasionally littervs. “I often litter”; “sometimesvs. “always”
Either given questions that were more anti-ecological and pro-
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o Strong vs. weak senses of self and attitude regarding the topic
o Results =
Weak behavior people were more easily and strongly affected
Self-Perception of Emotion
Maybe sometimes we know but sometimes there’s a sense of ambiguity
o Ex. = if you’re sitting at home and you feel your heart beating faster,
rapid breathing, flushed face need to infer what this emotion is
Emotion could be from a negative experience, like a break up
Emotion could be from a positive experience, like winning the
physiologies are similar, but the emotional states are
dependent on the context you’re in
o Different from an emotion that is a clear response to an unambiguous
Ex. = bear running at you you know that’s out of fear
Can social context shape the experience you have?
Study Schaffer & Singer (1962)
o Hypothesis = physiological response combined with a label leads to the
experience of an emotion
o Manipulate people’s physiology some were given a placebo pill, some
were given epinephrine that causes increased heart rate, blood pressure,
flushing, etc.
o Condition =
Given epinephrine and weren’t told what it would do to them
Given a placebo
Given epinephrine and told what it would do to give an emotional
context that would suggest the emotion of ‘euphoria’
o Euphoria study put in a room with someone who acts very happy
+Ep-Info. = most euphoria
Placebo = middle
+Ep.+Info. = least euphoria
They were expecting that, they knew what was going on
o Anger study put in a room with someone and are both asked to fill
out a questionnaire while waiting; the confederate starts getting angry –
how angry does the subject get?
+Ep.-Info. = most anger
Placebo = middle
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