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Lecture 14

PSYC 215 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Social Rejection, Positive Illusions, Confirmation BiasPremium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 215
Professor
Mark Baldwin
Lecture
14

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PSYC215–Lecture#14:WhenBeliefCreatesReality

Professorshowsaclipfrom“it’sawonderfullife”anditdepictsabankrun

BankRun
Peopleheararumourandstarttoworrythattheirmoneyisnotsafeinthebank
Manystarttodemandtotaketheirmoneyout
Thebankeventuallycannotpayeveryoneandsogoesoutofbusiness
oBecausemoneyyoudepositislentouttoborrowers,whocannotimmediately
returnittothebank

SelfFulfillingProphecy
Merton(1948)
“afalsedefinitionofthesituationevokinganewbehaviorwhichmakestheoriginallyfalse
conceptioncometrue.”
oThebankwasfinebutsincesomepeoplethoughtthebankhadaproblemthey
actedonitwhicheventuallycausedittobetrue
oThusthepeoplewhopredicteditatthebeginningthoughttheywererightwhenin
realitytheywerenot
“CleverHans”
oAhorsewastaughtarithmeticbyownerWilhelmVonOsten~1900
oHoax?CleverHanscoulddoitevenwithoutthetrainer
oThentheytrieditagainaskingthetrainertoleavetheroom
oTheyalsotriedputtingblindersonthehorse
§Thenhewouldn’tdoanything
§ItshowedthatHanswasrespondingtotheexpectanciesoftheowner
§Thehorsewouldrespondtofacialexpressionsorattentionputonhimfrom
theownerasasignaltostartorstopstomping
oItwasn’tahoaxinthesensethatitwasn’tintentional
Weknowaboutthebeliefconfirmingeffectsofschemas,confirmationbias,andmotivated
cognition
oTheseinvolvebiasesinperceivingreality
Maybesometimesrealityactuallydoesconfirmourbelief–butonlybecausewehavechanged
thenatureofthatreality
Perceiver’sexpectancyàperceiver’sbehavioràtarget’sbehaviorconfirmstheexpectancy

RosenthalandLawson(1964)
Hadundergraduatestudentsinaresearchclassrunstudieswithrats
o½toldtheirratswerebredtobe“bright”
o½toldtheirratswerebredtobe“dull”
oThiswasuntrue,ratswereequallybrightordullandwererandomlyassigned
Socalled“bright”ratsendedupperformingbetter
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