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feb 7 2012- psych 215.docx

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PSYC 215
Michael Sullivan

Tuesday, February 7th, 2012 {Articles: experimental design of the studies done in the assigned articles, as well as the main finding of the studies}. Inferences based on initial information The order in which we process information plays a big role in the inferences that we will make; this is what studies show. Example: skill-testing task, and we see them succeed or fail. Next Slides Results. Research suggests that after the first occurrence of behaviour you’re already making a judgment of the individual that you will try to adjust based on subsequent performance, but the first piece of information has a significant anchoring effect. We will see that getting information inconsistent with the first idea is not processed very well. The first pieces of information that you have about someone tends to have an anchoring effect on your judgment processes. Primacy Effect This is what is referred to as the primacy effect. Has to do with the higher amount of weight you are giving to information in a sequence that you are given first. Primacy Effect: Explanation 1 Because your mind has to be resource-conscious (you can’t spend all your time processing irrelevant detail), your mind at some point decides it has enough information and does not use subsequent information. Primacy Effect: Explanation 2 Also suggested that this might be happening. Subsequent information is used differently than the first pieces of information that we are given. Your processing changes as a function of time. Rather than using the information to build the impression, you use it to confirm (eg: he is really smart, but he got one wrong- it must have been a very tough question). We seem to be more interested in looking for information consistent with our initial impression than inconsistent. Confirmation Bias Basically, once we make up our minds, we do not want to change it. Time does not seem to have the same effect (eg: you are more likely to believe the thing you most recently heard). A computer would weigh all information equally, but the human mind does not do this. Perseverance of Beliefs The idea is that once you have a belief (an inference is a belief about another person), we protect our beliefs. The beliefs are not necessarily immutable, but they are consistent. We defend ourselves against anything that goes against our beliefs. Example: if you are a liberal, and someone is trying to dissuade you from being one, instead of really listening what you will be doing is thinking of counter arguments. Priming Effects When you wll be forming an impression of someone, some sort of conceptual category must come to mind so that you can describe that person. For example, if you are seeing someone do a charitable thing, the charitable category must come to mind. Basically, impressions come on a first-come first-served basis. Basically the phenomena where something that occurs that will influence the degree of accessibility of information in your mind. Whatever information is primed or made more accessible will be information more likely to be used in a decision process. Remember: study from the beginning of the course where people are asked about their eating habits on the way down to the food court. Priming is any manipulation that makes a certain word or concept more accessible. Priming Stimulus was the same, what was different was the information that was in consciousness. Next Slide Study where individuals were primed with polite or rude words at one point. Later, they are in a situation where they could interrupt an experimenter in a conversation. Those primed with rude words were more likely to be rude in how and how many times they interrupt the experimenter. So words/ideas you are primed with are more likely to be used in information processing. TABLE 5.3 in textbook not in slides. Many different fallacies. Be familiar with these types of biases for the test! Demonstrations of how the human mind does not process information in the most balanced or rational fashion. Next Slide The book also touches on issues related to framing. Depending on your prospective of the situation, you will think of it in different ways (they just saved a child, or they just made it an orphan). NEXT
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