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Child Development 2

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PSYC 304
Bernstein& Ashbaugh

Sept 8 - quiz on Tuesday: chapters one and two - correlation: a measurement for how two things are related - small r (less than .3), med r (.4-.6) or strong r (.7-1.0) - positive and negative correlations are equally strong, the only difference is that positive means that both increase and negative means that one increases and the other decreases - the only way to determine causation is with an experimental design, because correlation doesn't indicate causation - the quasi-experiment (it's a natural, not randomized environment. this is an inferior design, because you can't randomize it) - cross-sectional design: you're comparing children of different ages and figuring out if there's a difference between the two groups - longitudinal study is ideal, but it's expensive (you measure people across time) - the sequential design gets around that: you select different ages of children at onset and then observe them for a period of times as well - microgenetic design: you study a small group of children intensively as they are going through a particular milestone - ethical considerations: there are a few that are specific to children, though lots apply to adults too - right to protection from harm, informed consent, confidentiality, debriefing, knowledge of the results - the problem is with young children that parents have to give informed consent in their stead - you have to balance the rights of the child with the rights of the parent - what do you do when your kids are distressed by your experiment? that's why there is an ethics board - Theory: a set of assumptions that help us to generate a hypothesis > a set of concepts and propositions that describe, organize and explain a set of observations - questions and controversies about human development (they are very extreme sometimes, but we're trying to work things more in the middle - a good theory is parsimonious (simple, straightforward), falsifiable and heuristically valuable (it's useful) - nature vs nurture - if you thought that intelligence was entirely inherited, then you wouldn't try to encourage your child to learn; it wouldn't matter as mych what you do - if you believed that things were only nurture, you'd be provide an incredibly stimulating environment - most people realize it's somewhere in the middle - active/passive role of the child: if it's active, kids contribute to their own development and you should be encouraging the kids to act. if it's passive, we'll end up with something more like a lecture where you just let them sit there and absorb - if a child is aggressive, who is responsible? the parent's? the child's? - the youth protection act: your criminal record is wiped when you turn 18. this suggests that the child has a passive role in their actions - continuity vs discontinuity: do children change in leaps and bounds,
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