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Child Development 4

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McGill University
PSYC 304
Bernstein& Ashbaugh

Sept 15 - back to chromosomal abnormalities - Down Syndrome: trisomy of 21; this is the most common trisomy. - shorter, sloping forehead with almond-shaped eyes - their tongue tends to protrude - mental retardation, which can range from mild to severe - the risk of having a child with Down syndrome as the mother get older (35+ is more like "high risk," but it's really more incremental - other genetic abnormalities are carried through recessive traits - examples of this are cystic fibrosis, diabetes, haemophilia - parents are often healthy, as it's easy to be a carrier without expressing it - there are gene therapies where people provide the dominant gene, but this doesn't always work - through science and medicine, we've created a number of methods to identify when children will have these problems - genetic councelling (they'll do detailed family histories and outline the chances of conceiving a genetic abnormality) - prenatal detection techniques to identify any problems that the fetus might have > amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling {getting a sample of the placenta and testing that}, ultrasound - the reason why they use 35 as a cut off for maternal age is because the risk for amniocentesis causing miscarriage is higher before you're 35 and then it switches - amnio can only be done after 20 weeks, which is a long time to be pregs without knowing whether you want to keep the baby - CVS can be done earlier, but there's a greater risk - ultrasound is much more frequent: they check to make sure that the baby has enough amniotic fluid if the baby is overdue, they can run screening tests to determine if a baby should have some other tests - nuchal transluscency: they examine a flap of skin on the back of the baby's head (which is correlated with down syndrome), measuring it and comparing it to a standard - phenylketonuria: PKU > the baby is born without the ability to break down an amino acid. you have to change the baby's diet, otherwise phenylalanine will build up and cause mental retardation - fetal surgery: if a foetus is identified as having a physical abnormality, then surgery can be performed while the baby is in the womb, however the miscarriage rate is 5-10% - genetic engineering: - gene replacement therapy, - germline gene therapy. healthy genes are inserted during the embryonic period, which is very early, and this isn't done in humans, really - how does heredity affect intelligence, personality, mental health? - heritability: amount of variability in a trait that is attributed to hereditary influence - selective breeding experiments on rats: maze bright vs maze dull rats - compare family members who live together and family members who live apart - use twin design: compare mono- and dizygotic twins - adoption design: are adopted children similar to biological parents or adoptive parents - we look at concordance rates here - heritabili
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