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Child Development 8

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PSYC 304
Bernstein& Ashbaugh

Oct 04 - piaget's theory of cognitive development -cognition: involves knowledge (representations); mental processed to acquire knowledge and solve problems - cognitive development - changes which occur in the mental representations and cognitive processes over the course of our life - what is different between kids and adults - genetic epistemology: experimental study of the origin of knowledge - intelligence: adaptation to environment - we inherently seek to achieve cognitive equilibrium (a balance between out thought processes and the environment) > the child notices a mismatch in how he thinks and the world, so he must change how he thinks - child as a constructivist: acts or operates on objects and events to develop knowledge (the child is an active participant in learning - fundamental cognitive processes: assimilation and accommodation - assimilation: interpret new experiences with existing schemes - accommodation: modify existing schemes to account for new experiences - metaphor with amoeba and phagocytosis - organization: rearranging existing themes into more complex ones - overview of piaget's stages/periods 1. sensorimotor (birth-2years) - reflex activity: sucking and gripping; 0-1 months - primary circular reactions: instead of automatically gripping/sucking, the child will repeat these actions if it finds them pleasureable (grabbing a blanket or something when it is touching him, rather than going out and grasping something far away). lack of object permanence (out of sight, out of mind - it takes two years to develop a sense that objects exist when not in their direct sense input thing); 1-4 months - secondary circular reactions: similar to primary, but not limited to objects that are close to the body. this has to do with things that are near to the body (a child will go after a rattle, shake it and repeat it). this is voluntary, but not intentional. there is a partial notion of object permanence. if you leave an object partially in view, a child will try to seek it out. if you cover it fully, a child will not seek it. child lacks deferred imitation (playing peek a boo, the child will often imitate an action, but they don't at this stage); (4-8 months) - coordination of secondary schemes: child uses means-end strategies (coordinates things to solve a problem (may move a blanket to get a toy) but object permanence is still not fully acquired). children may search for an object where it was previously seen, even if it has been obviously moved.; (8- 12 months) - tertiary circular reactions: searches for hidden objects where they were found previously, but if the object has been hidden elsewhere without you doing it in front of him, then the child will not search for it. begins to solve problems by trial and error. place a child on a table with a stick on a toy. the child will attempt to grab the toy, and eventually figure out that the stick moves when the toy moves, so the child will grab the stick and pull it towards itself. this isn't intentional, though.; (12-18 months) - inner experimentation: at this stage, the child is much more intentional, as object permanence is acquired. deferred imitation emerges. Lucienne and
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