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Lecture 2

PSYC 304 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: John Bowlby, Explanatory Power, Lev VygotskyPremium

3 pages75 viewsFall 2014

Course Code
PSYC 304
Andrea Ashbaugh

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September 7th -9th 2010
Lecture 2-3
Tabula Rosa – John Locke
Tabula Rosa: Blank state – child id product of his environment – no knowledge, no preferences.
All content (data, rules) is derived from experiences
1. Associations
2. Repetition
3. Imitation
4. Rewards
5. Punishment
Implications of this view of development from bringing up a child?
Side note: Locke's self → “The little and almost insensible impressions on our tender infancies have vert important
and lasting consequences”
Seminal Developmental Ideas
Development proceeds according to an inborn timetable.
Rousseau: “Nature provides children with its own guide for growth, including their own modes of feeling and
thinking”. But children are not unfilled vessels.
1. Development unfolds in a series of stages.
Experience world through senses, ar active; intuitive, concrete reasoning relates to experience; minimal interest in social
rels till puberty; eventual interest in theoretical reasoning emerges.
2. Experience provides knowledge, but child ought to be the guide.
Environment can certainly shape children. But we run risk orf interfering with nature's plan: “Everything is good in leaving
the hands of the creator of things: everything degenerates in the hands of men”
Von Herder (1870s):
Cultural Relativism
Recognition culture/community plays a role in developmental
Darwin (1850s):
Natural Selection
1. In any species there will be a variation among certain traits (hair color, your speed, strength)
2. These variations are biologically based (behaviors)
3. Not all members of a species can survive, so there's competition.
So in a given environment, some are more able to reproduce, survive than others, so they have a benefit.
Pavlov, Watson, Skinner
From introspection to empiricism
Watson: Conditioning of reflexes explains all changes in behavior, simple or complex.
Ex: Popping balloon associated with white rabbit (now, conditioned response – rabbit - makes baby cry)
Empiricism: objectivity (but too narrow).
Believed human development guided by species-specific, biologically-unfolding processes, what might you expect
to see in terms of the sequence of the species' developmental progress?
Used 1-way mirror
Innovative observational methods:
1. There is a highly predictable sequences to normal development. And a range of timing for it.
2. Norms (motor characteristics,
3. Minimal effects of environment on sequences (if any).
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