Lecture 2 11 Jan 2013
intelligence testing is seen as imperialistic to discriminate against people and to hold the
advantaged group in place. arguments are made that there is bias is in the tests.
McIntosh thinks there are all sorts of problems with the IQ tests.
these are points made by McIntosh
lots of IQ tests are collections of tests- vocab, current affairs, block test. and were
designed for pragmatic purpose. so why should we take them seriously
what we will see is that the results tend to agree with each other. There is never any
negative correlation between mental tests (this is called the positive manifold- correlations
are positive and high). internal validity is good.
IQ tests correlate to real life performance (they are meant to predict classroom
performance) and a lot of the content is similar to school content. sometimes it is similar but
it is nice to strengthen in other ways. people predict that those with higher IQ predict higher
incomes. there are other factors that predict
income but IQ level is a good predict
intelligence is an ability and is adaptive. there are different kinds of intelligence
(emotional, practical, academic). it is adaptive in society as well- it is useful to be intelligent.
influenced by Darwin. introduced the idea of hereditary intelligence
his basic idea is that if your family is full of lawyers and judges and then you and your
kids are more likely to be a lawyer or judge. this could be because of genetics or it could be
because you were more likely to get into law school with a family of lawyers
Galton says there is no equality of people in terms of their ability and intelligence.
Use twins to test the effect of environmental effects. In the 30’s 40’s 50’s it was
environment that was more important. It then changed to nature with reports of these twins
that were separated and both chose the same career and life partners with the same name and
have the same hobbies.
Monozygotic and di-zygotic twins studies show that intelligence is hugely inherited.
Galton wanted to be scientific so introduced psychological tests and measurements. He
measured visual acuity, reaction time and such and opened up a lab that did that. These are the kinds of things that could be measured at the time. They thought that if you had better
vision or theory, you would have better nerves and hence better intelligence.
he was misogynistic and thought that because women were dainty, they would have to be
Cattell thought tests of various perceptual ability was a good indicator of intelligence. It
was based of psychophysical theory.
It followed the theory that those with a better body had better intelligence
Cattell found that students grades correlated with each other but not with his tests. His
experiments showed a restriction of range (this is also present in the current study that we are
participating in for the class) in IQ. He had used Colombia students’ results
Binet and Simon were commissioned because they didn’t want to waste resources on
slower kids and because they wanted to help the slower kids. With this assumption followed
that they thought it was not hereditary and that it could be changed otherwise why go through
The story is that he watched his children and found that the older one was smarter than
the younger one but then the younger one got smarter. So the idea was that as you got older,
you got smarter. So you have to be smarter than kids your own age to be considered smarter.
This introduced the idea of mental age. So he did many tests and found the base level or
exercises for kids of different age ranges. A 6 year old should be able to do these kinds of
tests. If they can’t then their mental age is not that of 6 but younger and those would be the
kids to focus on.
What if you want to compare the mental age of 30 to 40. This is why tests were
standardized and the intelligence quotient.
Binet said he is measuring the here and now and not predicting future intelligence. But he
still believed it was stable and inherited.
IQ tests just being developed during the period of the war. Slide 10
Terman standardized tests by giving them to average schools (middle class). He
addressed the problem of restriction of range.
These tests took a long time.
Yerkes convinced the government to test the troops during the first world war. He and a
group of people developed mental tests. All the tests were timed and so was speeded just like
the GRE is.
2 classes of tests- alpha and beta tests. Alpha tests won’t work if the person couldn’t read
so he developed the beta tests.
believed that Western and northern Europeans were genetically superior than southern
and eastern Europeans.
This caused a discouragement of immigration for Southern and Eastern Europeans.
This is why sometimes people think IQ tests were evil.
There was this idea with Eugenics that dull people were reproducing more than smart
people were which was only increasing the problem. When the idea rolled around it was
thought that sterilizing dull minded, mentally ill people, prostitutes and socially undesirable
people was a good idea
Before IQ tests rolled around Kerlin was castrating inmates.
He concluded that feeble-mindedness was controlled by a single gene
Eugenics was there before IQ test came about. It could follow it but it did not cause it.
The assessments of the Kallikak family was done by a middle class assistant (no actual
The data was collected w