PSYC 311 Lecture Notes - Functional Neuroimaging, Neuropsychology

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2 Oct 2014
Department
Course
Lecture 1
Tuesday, September 3, 2013
1860s and before – philosophical understanding of cognition
1860s onwards – became possible to harden the brain, cut the brain, etc. to study its
structure
1861 – birthday of neuropsychology
oBroca asked to amputate the leg of a patient, brain functions change while
different sections of the brain were affected
oFirst scientific evidence linking one section of the brain to one specific
functions and damage to these parts cause specific impairments
Perfect lesions can be achieved in experimental animals but not usually in real life
cases where humans have other problems as well
Left hemisphere – language and linguistic processes
Right hemisphere – non-verbal processes
1950s – Neuropsychology term was used for the first time
From the 1860s-1940s – there were rough linkages between different parts of the
brain
By the 1950s, specialists started entering neurological hospitals and studied
neurological impairments in greater detail
Neuroscience in the 1950s started to hold meetings where all scientists studying the
brain (neuro-xist) would come to meet for a week to present the latest information in
brain science
oBy the 1970s-80s, neuroscience emerged
oIn the 80s-90s, new methodologies emerged  functional neuroimaging
The brain is metabolically active (the most in the body)  when a particular part of the
brain is overactive, there will be an increase in oxygenated blood that goes to that part
of the brain
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