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McGill University
PSYC 331
Ariel Fenster

Socio-cultural variables  Playboy magazine centrefolds became thinner between 1959 and 1978  Although one study found that the trend toward portrayals of increasing thinness was levelling off an analysis of playboy centrefolds were becoming even thinner. This study showed that models shown on the internet have unhealthy levels of thinness  The findings for female body size showed increasing thinness in keeping with unrealistic cultural pressures; in contrast the body size of the male Playgirl models had grown due to increases in muscularity and the body sizes of typical males had also grown but cuz of increases in body fat  Females still feel more pressure than males  Barbie look- increase bust by 12 inches, reduce waits by 10 and grow to over 7 feet in height  5 and 6 year olds exposed to Barbie images suffered lower body esteem and greater desire to achieve the thin ideal  confirmed that women who are portrayed as eating heavily are indeed seen as more masculine and less feminine than women who are portrayed ad eating light meals  the scarlet O’Hara effect refers to this phenomenon of eating lightly to project femininity  In gone with the wind mammy admonishes scarlet to eat a meal prior to going to a barbeque so that she would appear dainty by eating very little  Prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1990; currently 20-30% of north Americans are overweight, perhaps cuz of an abundance of food and a sedentary lifestyle  Increasing prevalence of obesity to an evolutionary tendency for humans to eat to excess to store energy in their bodies for a time when food may be less plentiful  Found that weight dissatisfaction was associated negatively with age among women (younger women were more dissatisfies with their weight) but this association was not evident among men  This study also found that women were more likely than men to wish they weighed less and were actually doing something to try and lose weight; this tendency was found regardless of whether their actual weight was in the acceptable range as prescribed by body mass index tables  Women place greater importance on appearance than men do and that this diff exots across the lifespan and can even be detected among the elderly  There are diff among females and males in the extent of their internalization and acceptance of prescribed body image standards  Standards as a key component of risk for eating disorder and related dysfunctional behaviours  31% of Canadian young women from grades 6-10 thought that they were too fat. The proportion increased with age and by grade 10, 44 % indicated that they were too fat  dieters increased from 7% of men and 14% of women in 1950 to 29% of men and 44% of women in 1999.  A new study in southern Ontario found that in more than 2,000 girls aged 10 to 14, 29.3% were dieting and 1 in 10 had maladaptive eating attitudes suggesting the presence of an eating disorder  By grades 9 and 10 more than 25% of young women in Canada were on a diet when th
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