PSYC 331 Lecture Notes - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Mania

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5 Feb 2013
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Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by major disturbances in thought, emotion,
and behaviour: disordered thinking in which ideas are not logically related, faulty perception and
attention, flat or inappropriate affect, and bizarre disturbances in motor activity
Patients with schizophrenia withdraw from ppl and reality often into a fantasy life of delusions and
hallucinations
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe psychopathologies; however its life time prevalence is
generally accepted to be about 1%
Concluded that there may be real variation in schitzo across geographical regions around the
world with Asian populations having the lowest prevalence rates
Higher in males than in females (male- female = 1:4)
Although schitzo sometimes begins in childhood it usually appears in late adolescence or early
adulthood or early adulthood somewhat earlier for men than for women
Ppl with schitzo typically have a # of acute episodes of their symptoms.
Between episodes they often have less severe but still very deliberating symptoms.
Most ppl with schiotzo are treated in the community however hospitalization is sometimes
necessary
Concluded that almost one half (46%) do not require inpatient services. However ppl who were 1st
diagnosed while inpatients and those residing in rural areas were most likely to require additional
inpatient services in the 1st year of treatment
In Canada hospitalization rates are typically much higher among young men relative to young
women accounting for 19.9% of separations from general hospitals. Scitzo accounts for 30.9% of
separations from psyiatric hospitals
About 10% of ppl with scitzo commit suicide
Many ppl with scitzo remain chronically disabled. The disability can be attributed to symptoms
inherent to schitzo as well as the comorbid disorders from which approx 50% of those with shcitzo
suffer
In 2004 there were an estimated 234,305 ppl in Canada with schozto. Overall 374 deaths that year
were attributed to schizto. The illness total costs were $6.85 billon 70% of which was the cost of
lost productivity
Schizophrenia and comorbidity
Comorid conditions appear to play a role in the development, severity and course of schito.
Comorbid substance abuse is a major problem for patients with schizto occurring in as many as
70% of them
37% of the sample of ppl with schizto showed current evidence of substance us disorders. The
relationship was especially common among men and analyses suggested that childhood conduct
disorder problems are potent risk factors for substance use disorders in shcizto
about 40% of the participants were depressed at the outset. Over the next three years those
diagnosed with shcizto who were also depressed relative to the non depressed group were more
likely to use relapse related mental health services to be a safety concern, to have substance related
problems and report poorer life satisfaction, quality of life, mental functioning, family
relationships and medication adherence.
Comorbid anxiety disorders are also common and can impose an additional burden on ppl with
schizo and results in further decline in their perceived quality of life.
Comobidity with obsessive compulsive disorder is also related to a previous history of suicidal
ideation and suicide attempts
Post traumatic stress disorder is highly prevalent and under diagnosed among military veterans
with shizto
Developing( prodromal) phase of schito. Found that prodomol patients experience a wide variety
of comorbid psychiatric syndrome especially major depressive disorder and cannabis dependence
CLINICAL SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
The symptoms of patients with shcizto involve disturbances in several major areas: thought,
perception, and attention; motor beh; affect or emotion; and life functioning
Although only some of these problems may be present at any given time
The duration of the disorder is also imp in diagnosis
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