PSYC 331 Lecture Notes - Temporal Lobe, Psychosis, Prefrontal Cortex

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5 Feb 2013
Recent research
Zakzanis; conclusion tha the specific role of deficits in the temporal lobes has been overstated and
that more diffuse dysfunction exists
MRI studies found a subtle 4% but significant bilateral hippocampal volume reduction in ppl with
Regional volume reductions were esp marked in bilateral medial temporal lobe regions
Reported finding reduced hippocampus volume amog twins with s relative to twins without s
They reported that ppl had smaller medial temporal lobe volumes relative to controls but that the
volume diff was not specific for either region or hemisphere
Reduced cerebral blood volume accompanies brain size in s and proposed that chronic cerebral
blood volume eventually results in neuronal loss and cognitive impairments
The results suggested that violet ppl with s and a history of anti social and or substance use
manifest neural dysfunction affecting basal or orbital pats or the prefrontal cortex
Psychological stress and s
Data as show that as with other dis increased in life stress increase the likelihood of a relapse
Ppl who take pare in stress mgt program are less likely to be readmitted to the hospital the year
following treatment esp if they had attended treatment session regularly
Two stressed have played an imp role in s: social class and family
Social class and s
S are found in central city areas inhibited by ppl in the lowest socio economic class
The rate of s was found to be twice as high in the lowest social class as in the 2nd lowest class
Found tat ppl with s are downwardly mobile in occupational status. But an equal # of studies have
shown that ppl with s are not downwardly mobile
Found evidence for social selection hypothesis: of 26 patients in the lowest social class only 4 had
fathers in the lowest class
The data are more supportive of the social selection theory than of the sociogenic theory
The prevalence of s among Africans from the Caribbean who remain in their native country is
much lower than among those who have emigrated to London
The family and s
Moms found to be rejecting, overprotective, self sacrificing, impervious to the feelings of others,
rigid and moralistic about sex, and fearful of intimacy. This blamed the mom for child’s
psychiatric disorder. Mother theory had not yielded supporting data
A family communication pattern characterized by hostility and poor communication produced the
later onset of s or s related disorders
10% of the ppl returning to the low EE homes has relapse .in marked contrast in the same period
58% of the ppl returning to high EE homes had hone back to the hospital
it has also been fond that negative symp of s are the more likely to elicit critical comments
EE mothers are highly sensitive to excitement and depression in the patient and report a high level
of burden associated with their kids illness. These mothers also have a personality characterized
by high levels of conscientiousness and lowest levels of neurotism
Research indicates that both interpretations of the operation of EE –the casual and the reactive
may be correct.
Two key findings emerged: 1) the expression of unusual thoughts by the patients elicited higher
levels of critical comments by family members who had previously been characterized as high in
EE 2) in high EE families critical comments by family members led to increased expression of
unusual thoughts
Thus the study found a bi-directional relationship: critical comments by members of high EE
families elicited increased expression of unusual thoughts by patients and unusual thoughts
expressed by patients led to increased critical comments in high EE families
Cortisol is known to increase dopamine activity and may thereby increase the symp of s. thus
theory suggest a bi-directional relationship between HPA activation and dopamine activity
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