PSYC 332 – Introduction to Personality Psychology
Lecture 13 – February 19 , 2013
Fake It to Make It
Is it possible for an introvert to behave like an extrovert?
• Sophie, 11 years old, had secure attachment as a baby, but is shy.
Valentine's card from schoolgirl in her class, "when I think of you, you are
quiet", Sophie is highly self-conscious, she is going to face situations where if
you're an introvert it's not going to work so well, have to do things outside
your comfort zone. Brian Little thinks that if it's rly important then you can
push yourself to be more behaviorally extroverted, but there will be
costs/benefits though. Amy Cuddy, fake it fake it fake it until you become it, it
becomes part of you
• Is it a good idea to try to appear extroverted if you are actually shy?
• How does shyness change across roles or partners and what accounts for the
An Interesting Study: Lippa 1976
PhD student of Darryl Bem;
Followed up participants of Bem 1974 study on consistency of behavior;
Knew subjects standing on E-I;
Also Measured self-monitoring
Cover story: Teaching high school.
2 minute lesson about triangles to 7 graders.
• Filmed and blind coders rated verbal & nonverbal behavior.
⇒ He really knew where they were on the Intro/Extroverted Scale. Students
were called up; he told them it was about teaching styles, asked to make
believe they were teaching 7th graders about triangles talk for a few minutes
about them. Talked about self-monitoring (high or low). He asked participants
to pretend they were shy or extroverted.
⇒ Extroverts were rated as extroverted (more than introverts). What happens to
an introvert asked to play an extrovert
Moderating Effect of Self-Monitoring
⇒ Low SM = not that much difference, you can act a little different but not that
⇒ High SM = much more of a gap/spread 3.5 in natural, but ask them to be
extroverts goes up to 5, look like an extrovert. They can actually present
themselves as extroverts but particularly true if they were high in SM PSYC 332 – Introduction to Personality Psychology
⇒ All were introverts
Amy Cuddy Ted Talk
⇒ Do our nonverbal govern how we think and feel about ourselves? It seems to
go both ways. Pretend to be powerful and you’ll be more likely to feel
powerful. Testosterone and cortisol levels differ between assertive/affective
leaders, how you react to stress, higher to T and low to cortisol.
⇒ High power condition, you will gamble, compared to baseline, 20% increase
in testosterone, 25% decrease of cortisone; low power condition, won't
gamble, 20% decrease in testosterone
Evidence for Amy Cuddy Perspective
Describe 2010 study:
• 26 females, 16 m’s
• Cover story: “science of physio recordings”
• Random assignment to low vs hi power pose;
• Held 2 poses for 1 minute each;
• Saliva samples before and 17 min later
Testosterone & cortisol assays
• Self-report of feelings of power;
⇒ High power condition: legs on the table, arms extended (like after winning a
race), standing up with fists on the table, expansion postures
⇒ Low power condition: arms wrapped around each other, legs crossed, very
• Hi: 87%
• Lo: 60%
Feelings of Power?
• Hi = 2.57
• Lo = 183
⇒ Hi = high-power poses versus Lo = low-power poses
⇒ Hi condition were more likely to gamble compared to the Lo condition
⇒ Hi condition had lower levels of cortisol
Robustness and replicability?
• Would like to see it replicated, meta-analyzed,
Dangers of “false” self-presentation?
• Emotional leakage?
Many channels of communication, we can control our face, other
channels, our body and tone of voice. When someone is lying, if
you look at their body, you’re more likely to detect lying (or
listen to their tone) there might be leakage, something in their PSYC 332 – Introduction to Personality Psychology
tone of voice that contracts that. Risks with Amy Cuddy's
research, she's only looking for people to present themselves as
Could be costs to doing that in long-term.