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PSYC 332 - Intro to Personality

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McGill University
PSYC 332
Richard Koestner

Intro to Personality Lecture 7: Friday January 21, 2011 Evolution, Mate Preferences and My 8 Grade Year Book Questions of the day: • How has evolution influenced the mating preferences and behaviour of human males and females? o Sexual selection – describes evolution of characteristics that allow individuals to gain an advantage over same sexual members of species th Example from 8 grade • After 8 grade he went to an all boys high school and university • Last time he was in a co-ed context • He was very aware that the boys and girls were very interested in each other • For yearbook tried to come up with interesting things (rate people as whose the most attractive, best athlete etc)  not a great idea, but most people were interested in their rank relative to others • It was very clear that the most attractive girl was Darlene • Jimmy Kelly – was the boy who all the girls were interested in • And these 2 were a pair • Prof was voted strongest, best athlete, and smartest • There was also a section called the never never occupation, find something about you and pick something that you could never do (a small dainty girls never never occupation would be a truck driver) • For prof they came up with Playboy – he wanst coming across as sauve etc My options? QuickTimeª and a TIare needed to see this picture. TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.  thought other ways girls could be interested in him is like be like woody allen bc he is funny  he was wrestling with what this feedback meant The Evolution of Human Intrasexual Competition: Tactics of Mate Attraction, David Buss 1988 • Intrasexual selection – competition between members of the same sex for mating access to members of the opposite sex. o In most species this competition would involve… • Characteristics selected could be those that enable winning in direct combat, such as size and strength, o E.g. with baboons, bigger/stronger baboons and loudest grunt would pair off with other males and have direct combats and compete to see who is the most strong o Traits will be passed on from generation to generation, bc those will be more successful in having offspring • Or noncombat traits, such as producing successful mate-attracting signals or acquiring resources desired by the opposite sex. Images and Reality  Humans – nondirect competition that is most important  The way males compete against other males… • “The essence of competition is not direct confrontation. It consists instead of behaviors designed to acquire limited or better resources at the expense of others who are attempting to acquire those resources. Competitors need not ever meet to engage in intrasexual competition. o For males if you acquire more territory, status – these are likely to make you more desirable for opposite sex o Doesn’t necessarily involve direct confrontation with other males The 4 components of intrasexual competition for humans: • 1) Skill at locating mates; o visiting habitats that are frequented by opposite sex o where you could go to met girls in college (happened on weekend in fraternity parties) • 2) Producing effective mate-attracting behaviors; o Even for females the examples he gives is showing that youre available and that you might be interested and having a way of communicating that o And communicating you might be desirable and that your hard to get • 3) Acquiring resources desired by the opposite sex o in animal kingdom – territory, status o humans – certain resrouces that might convey you will be a good provider (historically, females tend to look more for partners who are older, wealthier, good careers, good ambition, likely to find good careers) • 4) Altering morphology or appearance o changing hairstyle, hair colour o to go on a diet How might males and females differ in forms of intrasexual competition? • Trivers (1972) Relative Parental Investment Hypothesis: o These differences may lead to differences in what in males and females look for in potential partners o Basic observation human species, having a child is much more involved and much more costly than females o Investment on part of the females is much greater than the males o Based on the relative difference… • “Males should adopt a reproductive strategy that maximizes copulatory opportunities, whereas females should adopt a strategy that imposes maximum choice, holding back until the best male (variously defined) is identified. Poor mating choices typically are more costly to females than to males in the currency of reproductive success” o Males seem to be more promiscuous sexually – think about sex more, want more sexual partners than females o Is some evidence human desires have involved that females are thinking more about a reliable long term mate What men must offer?  for humans, fathers often do invest and are involved  men have to offer some signs that they are willing and capable to invest • The ability and willingness of a man to provide social, psychological, and material resources are hypothesized to compose a crucial part of female mate selection criteria. • Prediction 1: Competition among men to attract women will center on acquiring and displaying such resources. What women must offer: • “The primary reproductive constraint for men consists of gaining access to reproductively valuable women. This suggests that men will value those characteristics in women that provide powerful cues to reproductive value.” o Suggestion: men will be oriented toward signs of fertility and reproductive value o women have to compete to display those characteristics that men will use to select mates • P2:women should compete with each other to display those characteristics that men use to select mates—those linked with female reproductive value. o Youth and Health – can be shown with physical appearance and physical attractiveness o Suggestion: men are more oriented to making judgments and seeking physical attractive females bc its ai signal of reproductive hea
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