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Lecture 3

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PSYC 332
Richard Koestner

Lecture 3 January 15, 2013 The Big 5 Traits: Evidence of their usefulness Question of the Day • How useful are the Big 5 traits? o In predicting important life outcomes? o In fostering the scientific study of personality? o In your own everyday life? • Big 5 traits brought organization and coherence The Big Five Trait Taxonomy • Extraversion: tendency to be outgoing, sociable and assertive • Neuroticism: tendency to experience negative emotions • Openness to Experience: tendency to be receptive to new ideas, approaches and experiences • Agreeableness: tendency to have concern for others, to have warm and trusting and sentiments • Conscientiousness: tendency toward organization, persistence and motivation in goal-directed behavior • Mnemomic: OCEAN, ENOAC Table 1.2 from textbook • Synthesizing vs emphathizing o Logical, analytical, organizing things in systematic way (e.g. Autistic children) vs (e.g. Sheldon) • Interpersonal circumflex (??? In textbook) Who is the most extreme on each of the Big 5 traits (*Watched BBT clip where they were talking about watching a superman marathon in the beginning) • Extroversion (Howard from BBT)/introversion o Extraversion includes willingness to be open towards others • Neuroticism (Raj from BBT)/stability • Openness/rigidity • Agreeableness (Lennard from BBT)/quarrelsome • Conscientiousness/careless (e.g. Penny from BBT) o Involves 3 main things:  Self-control  Orderliness  Hard work McAdam’s quote about A. p 193: “Agreeable people are more than nice. Agreeableness incorporates expressive qualities of love and empathy, friendliness, cooperation and care. Indeed, the term agreeable may be a bit too meek for the A domain in traits, a domain that includes such concepts as altruism, affection and many of the most admirably humane aspect of the human personality” Conscientiousness: self control, hard work, and orderliness Features of the Big Five • Apply to all people • Bipolar • Comparative • Non-conditional • De-contextualized Initial Questions of the Big 5 • Does it predict behavior? • Is there agreement among different raters? o Likely that there would be agreement btwn you and other ppl rating you • Do ppl show consistency across situations? o Surprising levels of consistency over time • Do people show consistency over time? o Overtime there is perfect reliably  E.g. if you are most conscientious in the beginning, 18 months later you are most likely to be most conscientious still Aren’t the Big 5 too broad? • Imagine you are a counseling or clinical student who just interviewed a new client and you were asked to report on their personality • Somebody might really like people but they just don’t know how to put themselves out there Facets of OCEAN • There are 6 facets for each trait, we only identified the 6 for neuroticism and extravertism • Facets allow you to be more concise, however, Koestner does not recommend it because that would mean you are working with like 30 categories  way too much info to process efficiently • Koestner’s recommendation: o Go with the Big 5 traits but take 2 of the most important ones and break them down further (neuroticism and extravertism) Facets of N & E • The 6 facets of these 2 traits can both be separated into two separate categories Neuroticism: • Big difference btwn first four facets and the last 2 o First 4 show tendency to feel bad about ourselves  More internalizing o Impulsiveness and angry hostility are more externalizing • Should know whether they are internalizing or externalizing (therefore you have factor analysis) Extraversion • 3 having to do with people person and 3 facets having to do with energy, vitality, and assertiveness o Social vitality vs social dominance (respectively) What can the Big 5 predict? 1) Daily emotions 2) School and work performance 3) Marital outcomes 4) Social patterns 5) Health/mortality • A scale is used to ask you how you felt over the past few days • Pleasant/unpleasant affects o These two are independent of each other o Found that:  extravertism is strongly related to positive affect  Neuroticism is strongly related to negative affect • You can have a neurotic person who is experiencing a lot of negative affect but that doesn’t mean that they’re not experience positive affect • e.g. you can be a funny neurotic The Big 5 Personality Dimensions and Job Performance: A Meta-Analysis (Barrick and Mount 1991) • 150 studies examined the validity of personality measures for personnel section purposes btwn 1950 and 1990 • Studies used a diverse and confusing array of scales • Results can be reorganized by adopting the Big 5 framework Key Issues: • Occupational group: o Professionals (engineers, doctors, lawyers, teachers) o Managers o Sales o Police o Skilled/semi-skilled (clerical, assemblers, operators, drivers) • Outcome Criteria o Training proficiency o Job proficiency o Objective outcomes (tenure, promotion, salary) Key Results as mean r across studies • Conscientiousness (universally helpful in work situations  they are responsible, listen to rules, respond well, adjust, come on time, figure out how to persist, etc.)  important on all 3 criterias o By occupation  Professionals .20**  Managers .22**  Sales .22**  Police .23**  Manual .21** o By Criteria  Training Proficie
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