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Notes for psyc 332 lectures 1-9.docx

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McGill University
PSYC 332
Richard Koestner

Notes from the first lectures early in the semester KNOW THE BIG 5 TRAITS Problem of the big 5 traits: What else do we need to know about a person: Neuroticism and extroversion predict emotions School and work performance= conscientiousness (dealing with self-regulation: escaping temptation, setting goal, ect.) Conscientiousness measures longitudinal leads to help people follow guidelines Do the big 5 traits predict the occupational choices: Creative writers=openness to experience (reflect, imagine different scenarios) Professors=low on extroversion (have max 3 classes, mostly work on data, more introverted) Marital selection-> similarity hypothesis (same) vs complementary hypothesis (opposites attract)=Random selection Outside the big 5 traits= similarities (same education, same religion, same ethnicity,etc.) Why? -Openess to experience=correlation (husband high wife =high): related to experience and intelligence -> control for education + inletellengence= NO correlation Supports random selection Stongest predictor of marriage lasting=trait of neuroticism (separate contribution for each [husband and wife] consciousness =predictive ONLY for men (husband low on conscientness=failure in marriage) -3 dif. traits influence pattern of life in university: Extraversion=larger network, fall in love Agreeableness= romatic and freinship relationships, fewer arguments in relationships Conscientiousness= keep in contact with their family (social) Problems= VERIFY! Superficial assessment-> evidence of jusdgement of the big 5 traits in 1 min. and even without talking with the person= Broad Label and stereotypes *Fails to tell you what is unique and individualistic of a person-> describes in a rough way, other aspects become more important *Social acceptable way to categorizing people, putting people into categories Run into problems with the negative aspects of the big 5 traits (how would the person feel, how others would view you) so people have resisted using it to label Cant get away from the big 5 traits->evolved to observe and make note of them, useful in organizing how we think of people Example: clip from the office show-party, did not want the boss (jerk: would ruin the party)->brought a technician to read e-mails and found out about the party and crashed the party Jim agreeableness but in this scene is seen beyond the five traits: situation tells something else about him-> Pams point of view: uses the frustration in a different view, he did the kindest thing and sang a love song to Micheal Scott (when things are going bad he still does the kindest thing) Micheal Scott (the boss) and the five traits-> extroverted, neurotic Is he real? trying to be someone he is not, clueless about who he is and how he comes across to other peoplemight be pretending to be extroverted (make it more complicated) Are they putting on a persona? Beside quoting the big five traits we might also be making an assessment of authenticity which will determine how comfortable we are with the person-> Authenticity Assessment Strength: Non-conditional, Non-contextual Conditional Qualities could show more precisely who the person is-> could figure the person out more with conditional descriptions Example: Peanut characters Giving conditional descriptions helps to link the person (in this case character) more easily Ask ppl for their traits-> often conditionalize it PPl give Big Five traits but give more conditional descriptions which can help capture the person more UNIQUELY McAdams-> Big Five Traits is a starting point -Ask to think about someone and we are to most likely name motivational, individualistic qualities, life experience that you access to when you get to know someone well -Three Lvls of Personality-> 1) Traits 2) Characteristics Adaptations: personal adaptations to motivational (goals, dif. systems for quoting goals), cognitive, and developmental challenges and tasks (dif. challenges we experience depending on age ex. 13 9interacting with boys and playing sports) vs 20 year old (romantic partner, relationships). 3) Life Narrative: Identity and unity in our personality. Making sense of the different aspects of ourselves. Internalize and narrative of the self that people construct to integrate the past, present, and future (making sense of how we were at 13 and now: how is it the same person) What are the most common forms of characteristic adaptations? What are some methods used to assess individual differences in personality? Example: Spiderman movie (Trait will be sufficient?) Peter: High on Agreeableness, Moderate to Low Extroversion, Low on Neuroticism, High on conscientiousness Mary Jane: Would want to know what their family is like Peter knows Mary Janes family is loud and conflictful Mary Jane knows Peters family is calm and reasonable ppl Another question that would be answered is What are they striving for? What are their career goals? What are their interests? Characteristics Adaptations (Personal Concerns): McAdams-> want to make more of a nuance description Key point->big five traits=consistencies= non-conditional and cross-situational, applied over time and throughout life Is more affected by current circumstances (dev. Stage, role, motivations) Problem (with second lvl)= messier-> dozens of different individual differences that are measure which differ-> more conditionalised, more likely to change, more affected by whats going on in your life. No overarching organization. Conditionalised, change over time, affected by whats going on in your life McAdams-> 3 generilized ways personality psychologists have generelized these adaptations: 1) Implicit motivations (Motivational): what your striving for, energize and direct behavior [Ppl may not even know their motives so it has been a tradition to measure motives implicitly: -Thematic appersention test: presented an ambiguous pictures (young woman and older woman) and tell a story (beginning, middle, and end) By looking over the themes you will notice differences from one person to the next, see reaccurance of acheivements and others have to do with power and in others about intimacy Problem: psychodynamic thinking=strong-> pictures are creepy-> giving a story would make people think of a creepy story=not good assessment -Research methods of thematic appersention: Show two scientists and . Ask people to say a story then observe content-> assume that ppl are not aware of their motives and getting a good sense of it by them telling you a story and you see consistent themes] Same pictures, but getting different stories: you could see peoples personalities in it. Big 3 Motives: 1) n Achievement: Pure Achievement-> High on Achievement-> 2) n Power: High on Power->
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