PSYC 332 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Personnel Selection, Achievement Orientation, Surgency

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20 Jul 2016
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Question of the Day:
-How useful are the Big 5 traits??????
In predicting important life outcomes?????
In fostering the scientific study of personality????
In your own everyday life?????????
-Universal, see it in other languages and cultures, if we know our own scores
or other peoples scores- are there meaningful life outcomes, will be
influenced by our traits.
-The way we construct our social relationships, follow health advice, whether
we are more likely to have problematic behaviours or not. There is several
thousand studies involving the big 5 traits, and many focus on predictive
validity.
-5 Studies that will be covered, are not comprehensive, but they are
interesting and will give us the sense that the Big 5 can predict certain
things over time.
-In a normal distribution, most of us are in the middle on the Big 5,
however, it is possible that you may be high on extraversion or neuroticism.
More subtly and nuance to the big 5 system and personality generally.
Evidence- how has it advanced the scientific incremental study of personality
on our lives.- It has really helped to reorganize and reinvigorate the field of
personality.
What can the Big 5 predict?????????
1/Marital Outcomes
2/Work Performance- Meta analysis that brought a lot of order to our
understanding of this.
3/Social patterns of university students- Longitudinal study in Germany, had
students before they started university and tracked them over 18 months.
4/Positive and negative affect- Our emotional functioning.
5/School performance.
Most famous study- Has to do with marital outcomes.
Extraversion=- Energetic approach to social life and world.
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Introversion- More inward oriented, perhaps less of a risk taker, more
reflective.
All dimensions are bipolar.
Neuroticism- negative emotionality.
Openness to experience, opposite end is to be closed to experience, to like
familiar and routines.
Agreeableness- Pro-social, communal orientation, opposite end is
quarrelsome, sometimes cynical or cold. If you are low on agreeableness,
people may say they wish they weren’t.
Conscientiousness- Being able to focus on goals and planning and keeping
on task, over-coming obstacles, self-control, other end is to be carefree,
careless, not organized.
All probably high on introversion and conscientiousness- introversion
associated with being better in school- a lot of time must be spent a lone
studying.
Personality and Compatibility Kelly & Conley, 1987 Study:
-50 year study of 300 engaged couples who were to be married in 1938.
-Personality rated by five acquaintances who knew them well.
Reconfigure and reduce to the big 5.
Many non-personality variables also assessed.
-Followed up first five years, then after 20 and 50 years.
-Key Outcomes: Divorce, Satisfaction in Marriage.
If they look at Big 5 and wanted to show they were important and could
predict big things, this is a classic study where they tried to predict how
peoples marital lives would turn out.
Published in 1987 by Kelly and Conley, began in 1932 by Kelly. He planned
to do short term longitudinal study of 2-3 years, but once he collected the
data he realized he had a rare opp. To track people over time.
Started with a large same of 300 engaged couples and wanted to asses
personality, no big 5 system- only had 180-200 personality traits.
In the study, he had all 300 couples assessed on 200 diff. trait adjectives.-
he did not have people report their own traits, he had 4-5 people who knew
each member of the couple complete the ratings on them- they were
peer/family reports.
Then you can aggregate across the various peers and have a sense how they
are on the personality traits.
Problem- 1930- statistical procedures not sophisticated- 200 traits, trying to
predict marital outcomes over time- too confusing/too complex.
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40 years later- once the big 5 traits had emerged, another researcher
contacted the original researcher and wanted to reorganize it according to
big 5- Kelly and Conley together took another look at the data and tried to
determine whether the big 5 traits would predict whether people got
divorced, got married or were satisfied with their marriage.
The original focus of the study was on personality- if you wanna aasses if
people have a happy marriage you want to look at other things than traits-if
they have the same religious beliefs, the same socioeconomic background,
What has happened in their life in terms of difficult life events.
In this study they measure personality in many other things which we
expect could impact on how marriage would proceed.
They planned the study to follow up every year for the first 5years, then
they decided to follow up 20 and then 50 years- 22 of them didn’t even get
married, collapsed before they got married.
Out of the 278 that did get married- only 50 couples divorced.- In those
years, divorce was not as common as it is now.
Key out come- how the marriages developed, rather than just looking at if
there was a divorce or not, they created an index- called the Marriage
misery index.
This involves, if people got divorced- that is a negative outcome- they get a
high score, other way to get a high score is to stay married for a long
timeeventhough you are unhappy in the marriage.
At one end, marriage misery is either divorced or living in a miserable
marriage.
Other is not divorced and quit happy.
Middle- staying together and having moderate kinds of experiences.
Key Results for Kelly & Conley 1987:
-Predictors of Marital Misery:
N
C
-Non-Personality Factors:
SES
Religious beliefs and values.
Life Events.
Because Conley joined Kelly and because the field of personality had been
transformed in 1970s and 80s, they were able to test some fairly systematic
hypothesis;.
Found that over 50 years, you could predict which marriages were going to
end in divorce or in misery.
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