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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Goals.docx

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PSYC 333
Jennifer Bartz

Lecture 10 - Goals Goals - internal representations of desired states - span from the moment to life long - single goals cannot be understood in isolation Expectancy Value Theories - need (how hungry am I?) - incentive value (food relative to need) - expectancy - probability of motive satisfaction o task will be successfully executed (can I do it?) o completing task will satisfy need (will it satisfy my need?) - motivated if expectancy is high and value is high Goal Dimensions Importance-commitment - value - centrality to self o importance in terms of self definition - number of higher order goals served o serves 2+, more committed than if serves only 1 o e.g. being a doctor is good because of money, medicine, status Equifinality multiplicity - energy mobilization o most goals that are important face challenges o more commitment, more mobilizing energy and time to achieve that goal due to high value o persistence - how long an individual is willing to strive for a goal Difficulty - expectancy o high difficulty = low expectancy o less likely to pursue the goal but depends on value of the goal - personal agency beliefs probability of goal attainment o context: responsiveness of environment o capability: self efficacy (personal resources) o importance-commitment may influence appraisals of difficulty  difficulty = subjective appraisal (judged by us)  more commitment = difficulty is challenging (+)  less commitment = difficulty is threatening (-)  cost: investment vs. loss depending on commitment in relationships STUDY: personal goals and subjective well being  longitudinal study  list personal goals at beginning of the term  assess commitment, attainability, progress and subjective well being  affect + life satisfaction  assessed 4 times across 14 weeks 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 High -0.1 Attainability -0.2 -0.3 Low -0.4 Attainability -0.5 -0.6 High commit Low Commit Changes in Subjective Well Being as a function of prior commitment and goal attainability - results: high commitment goals influence subjective well being and low commitment don’t Problems of acting on goal intentions - which way should I do this? - situations elicit competing responses - opportunities escape our attention Specificity - Implementation Intensions o intend to do Z when I encounter situation Y o increases rate of goal completion STUDY: getting things done over Christmas break  time, place, and specific actions to complete their personal projects  easy goals don’t require implementation  difficult goals: implementation completed goals 3X more likely than without implementation  weakness: perception of goals and difficulty are subjective o implementation: may have lied about completion 90 80 70 60 50
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