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Lecture 11

Lecture 11 - Mindset Theories.docx

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PSYC 333
Jennifer Bartz

Lecture 12 – Mindset Theories Tuesday October 12 - self-referent effect - spotlight effect - self-enhancement vs. self verification o can be both depending on how positively you view yourself o hence can only experiment on people with lower S.E. - loyal vs. local Expectations vs. Fantasies - expectancy o judging a desired future as likely o derived form personal history - fantasy o thoughts and images about a desired future positively Rubicon Model of Action - whether one will cross the line and no turning back  commitment to goal - phases o mindsets  pre-decisional: choose goal among many wants and wishes  post-decisional/pre-actional: plan when where and how to achieve goal o action sets  actional: action taken  post-actional: evaluation of achieved outcome. compare to originally desired outcomes, if discrepancy, deliberation on further courses of action Mindset Theory Figure 1. Deliberative vs. Implemental Mindsets - mindset: cognitive orientations that affect the processing of info and the control of action in service of - deliberative mindset o pre-decisional o choose between action goals suggested by wishes and wants o think about expected values o expectancy thoughts: cost benefit analysis is good here - implemental mindset o post decision, pre action o goal awaits successful implementation o think about when where and how o expectancy values thoughts are distracting at this point Impartiality in Information Processing - deliberative: impartial information processing o process info about diff decision alternatives o open to info o has not decided o not biased - implemental: partial info processing o only process info about chosen alternative o biased o because it is non-functional to think of alternative choices after decision has been made Biased Info Processing - making a decision or having made a decision - implemental mindset o biased encoding of info  I only attend to and store in memory what is relevant  once decided, don’t process info on alternative choices - dissonance o biased retrieval of info  I only recall what is relevant to the choice made  forget info that is no longer relevant although was relevant when presented e.g. told about two jobs, decided on job A, forgets info of job B - mindset: biased info processing at encoding to stay focused on mindset task o bias in info processing - dissonance: bias at retrieval to justify decision o bias in info retrieval STUDY: Impartiality in info processing - Beckmann and Gollwitzer 1987 - “First impression study” - receive photo of 2 attractive females - receive info about each of them - recall + and – characteristics of 2 females - Figure 2. Three experimental conditions - condition 1: impartial cuz recall before making decision - condition 2: dissonance  only recall chosen female’s info - condition 3: mindset  only process chosen female’s info Chosen Nonchosen 35 30 Items 25 20 recalled10 5 0 Pre Pre Post encode ecode encode Pre Post Post retrievretrieretrieve Experimental conditions Figure 3. Impartiality in Info Processing - good result for condition 3 predicted by mindset theory - dissonance perhaps requires longer time gap Dilemma in the Realm of Positive Illusions - control, optimism about future, + self views - if normal peoples perceptions are marked by + biases, how can we effectively ID and use – feedback? - scenario 1 o good decision making o deliberative o weigh pros & cons o suspend illusions - scenario 2 o goal striving success o implementation o task oriented, focused o marshal illusions STUDY: illusion of control - manipulation o deliberation: write down immediate and long term consequences of making and not making decision o implementation: think about project have already decided on; write 5 steps for making it happen: when, where, how for each step - contingency learning task o press vs. not press button to turn light on o light comes on 75% of time when press button o light also comes on 75% of the time when don’t press button o pressing button does not control the light going on  normal people overestimate
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