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Lecture 18

Lecture 18 - Mar 29.doc

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McGill University
PSYC 333
Jennifer Bartz

PSYC333 Lecture 18 - Mar. 29 Prejudice II: The Case of Sexism Review: • What are the basic mental processes underlying prejudice (and is it inevitable)? • Categorization • Socially shared knowledge and beliefs (Devine) • Attitudes (towards) other groups (Fazio) • Involves automatic and controlled processes • Implicit and explicit attitudes predict different kinds of behavior (spontaneous vs deliberative) • Chronic activation and contextual effects Where is the ‘Authentic Self’? • Devine: • Activation of stereotyped knowledge is automatic; inhibition (because of personal beliefs that stereotyping is wrong) is controlled • Fazio: • Personal attitude is activated automatically and overt expression is of attitude is suppressed when attitude conflicts with social norms • Implications for interpretation of automatic biases Treating Women as Sex Objects (McKenzie): Self-Schemata • Knowledge structures to understand our behaviour • What type of person am I? • Influences how we process information about the self, and others • E.g., search for information about others that is related to self-schemata • Selective attention, encoding and retrieval • Problematic, especially in ambiguous situations • Does gender schematic processing lead to prejudiced views and behaviour towards women- i.e., treating women as sex ob- jects? • Prime gender schema in schematic and aschematic men) and record interaction with a woman • Schematic processing should result in sexism: • Cognitive: recall and RT for woman’s physical features • Behavioural: woman’s ratings of male’s sexual motivation Conducted three phases of the study: • • “Censorship study” • “University Life Interview” • “Passage of Time on Memory” • Interviewer ratings: How sexually motivated did you find the subject? • • How much did you feel that he was looking at your body? • Memory for interviewee’s physical characteristics and what she said • Interpersonal distance • Social interaction with a female confederate Multiple schemas available • • Need to prime heterosexual schema • • Should only work for men who have this schema available in memory • Interactive model: chronics especially likely to display priming effects Gender Schema Theory Revisited (Bem): Gender aschematic and gender schematic (sex-typed) • • Those endorsing only sex related attributes (e.g. Male endorses masculine/agentic traits) thought to be “gender schematic” • Creates a ‘heterosexual subschema’: • Encode all cross-sex interactions in sexual terms • Encode all members of the opposite sex in terms of sexual attractiveness Construct Accessibility (Higgins et al): • Two causes of assimilative effects: • Temporary accessibility: contextual activation induces perceivers to interpret events consistent with momentarily activat- ed constructs • Chronic accessibility: frequently activated constructs are more likely to affect judgment (irrespective of context) • Recency vs frequency • Both are determinants of construct activation Behavioural Effects of priming Men to View Women as Sexual Objects (Rudman & Borgida, 1995): • Are the effects of temporary and chronic accessibility on sexual objectification additive (independent) or interactive? • Measure chronic accessibility • Likelihood to Sexually Harass Scale • Contextually activate • Prime with Sexist Ads • Videotapes of 20 ads, 16 sexist The Likelihood to Sexually Harass Scale (Pryor, 1987): Overview of Procedure: • LSH subjects recontacted for subsequent study • View Ads for “Market research” • “Control subjects” for a lexical decision task Finish early (25 mins) - interview and evaluate woman for office managerial position as favour to experimenter (high vs low • power) Words for Lexical Decision Task: • Sexist words •
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