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Lecture 17

Lecture 17 - Mar 27.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 333
Professor
Jennifer Bartz
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC333 Lecture 17 - Mar. 27 Prejudice Prejudice: • Public opinion polls show steady decline in negative evaluations of minority groups after WWII • But racial conflicts only show moderate reduction • Has racial prejudice really been abandoned, or just changed it’s face? • What mental processes underlie prejudicial beliefs and behaviours? Prejudice (Is It Inevitable?): • Categorization - categorize people into different groups • Socially shared beliefs about groups • Knowledge • Acceptance • Attitude toward the group Categorization: • How do we form impressions of others? • Brewer’s Dual Process Model • Fiske & Neuberg’s Continuum Model • Start with category based, theory driven, top-down process • We categorize people based on salient features - the big 3: race, gender, age • Easy, effortless, automatic • But do we go beyond the category to form an individuated impression? Brewer’s Dual-Process Model: • Involves both automatic and controlled processes • Controlled: a function of controlled deliberate process; due to motivation (cognitive capacity) • Automatic: easy, effortless, automatic Dual-Process Theories: • Mental processes underlying social judgment and behaviour can be controlled or automatic Automatic vs. Controlled: • Automatic • Elicited unintentionally • Require few cognitive resources • Cannot be stopped voluntarily • Occur outside of conscious awareness • Controlled • Initiated intentionally • Require considerable cognitive resources • Can be stopped voluntarily • Operate within conscious awareness Devine’s (1989) Model of prejudice: • Knowledge vs belief (in accuracy) • Everyone knows the stereotype (regardless of whether one is high or low in prejudice) • Knowledge acquired in early childhood, and over-learned as a result of socialization • Therefore, available in memory and can be automatically activated • Rejection of stereotype results from non-prejudicial beliefs that are acquired later in socialization process (low stereotype) • Less over-learned, therefore require operation of controlled process. We all know stereotype, but the accuracy of acting on the prejudice is determined by whether one is LP (higher controlled) vs HP • Inhibition is a controlled process that requires: • Motivation • Cognitive capacity • Automatic stereotype activation is equally strong among low and high prejudice people • But low prejudice (LP) and high prejudice (HP) differ in level of controlled processing • Stereotype activated automatically but impact on behaviour can be controlled through effortful processes • LP (but not HP) person tries to inhibit use of stereotype information • But requires motivation and cognitive capacity High vs Low Prejudice People: • Individual differences on the Modern Racism Scale (indirect measure): • “Over the past few years, the government and news media have shown more respect to Blacks than they deserve” • “Over the past few years, Blacks have gotten more economically than they deserve” Study 1: Know the Stereotype? • Recruited White Intro Psychology students • “We’re not interested in your personal beliefs but rather your knowledge of the content of cultural stereotype of Blacks in America” • List components of stereotype • Complete Modern Racism Scale • High and low prejudice ps report the same things… no difference between HP and LP in the extent to which these have the knowledge of the Black cultural stereotype Study 2: Automatic Priming and Prejudice • “Perceptual vigilance task” • Identify the location of the stimulus • Parafoveal priming • Impression formation • Read paragraph about Donald and form impression… Priming Words: Rate “Donald”: • Target (stereotype consistent) • Hostile • Dislikable • Unfriendly • Thoughtful • Kind • Considerate • Control (stereotype irrelevant) • Boring • Narrow minded • Conceited • Intelligent • Dependable • Interesting But Are Ps Consciously Aware of Prime? • Check 1: “Guess what word came up” • 1,200 guesses • Only 20 correctly identified the word that was flashed on the screen • 1.67% hit rate • Check 2: Recognition (your primes vs alternate list) • Chance level accuracy • Priming out of awareness successful • Results: • Ps who were primed with negative cultural stereotype of Black would judge with more prejudice compared to those who were not primed Thought Listing-Controlled Process: • “List all of your thoughts in response to the social group Black Americans” • Any and all thoughts, flattering and unflattering are acceptable • Anonymous responding • Thoughts cod
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