PSYC 333 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Rodney King, Thought Suppression, Eval

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PSYC333 Lecture 17 - Mar. 27
Prejudice
Prejudice:
Public opinion polls show steady decline in negative evaluations of minority groups after WWII
But racial conflicts only show moderate reduction
Has racial prejudice really been abandoned, or just changed it’s face?
What mental processes underlie prejudicial beliefs and behaviours?
Prejudice (Is It Inevitable?):
Categorization - categorize people into different groups
Socially shared beliefs about groups
Knowledge
Acceptance
Attitude toward the group
Categorization:
How do we form impressions of others?
Brewer’s Dual Process Model
Fiske & Neuberg’s Continuum Model
Start with category based, theory driven, top-down process
We categorize people based on salient features - the big 3: race, gender, age
Easy, effortless, automatic
But do we go beyond the category to form an individuated impression?
Brewer’s Dual-Process Model:
Involves both automatic and controlled processes
Controlled: a function of controlled deliberate process; due to motivation (cognitive capacity)
Automatic: easy, effortless, automatic
Dual-Process Theories:
Mental processes underlying social judgment and behaviour can be controlled or automatic
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Automatic vs. Controlled:
Automatic
Elicited unintentionally
Require few cognitive resources
Cannot be stopped voluntarily
Occur outside of conscious awareness
Controlled
Initiated intentionally
Require considerable cognitive resources
Can be stopped voluntarily
Operate within conscious awareness
Devine’s (1989) Model of prejudice:
Knowledge vs belief (in accuracy)
Everyone knows the stereotype (regardless of whether one is high or low in prejudice)
Knowledge acquired in early childhood, and over-learned as a result of socialization
Therefore, available in memory and can be automatically activated
Rejection of stereotype results from non-prejudicial beliefs that are acquired later in socialization process (low stereotype)
Less over-learned, therefore require operation of controlled process. We all know stereotype, but the accuracy of acting on
the prejudice is determined by whether one is LP (higher controlled) vs HP
Inhibition is a controlled process that requires:
Motivation
Cognitive capacity
Automatic stereotype activation is equally strong among low and high prejudice people
But low prejudice (LP) and high prejudice (HP) differ in level of controlled processing
Stereotype activated automatically but impact on behaviour can be controlled through effortful processes
LP (but not HP) person tries to inhibit use of stereotype information
But requires motivation and cognitive capacity
High vs Low Prejudice People:
Individual differences on the Modern Racism Scale (indirect measure):
“Over the past few years, the government and news media have shown more respect to Blacks than they deserve”
“Over the past few years, Blacks have gotten more economically than they deserve”
Study 1: Know the Stereotype?
Recruited White Intro Psychology students
“We’re not interested in your personal beliefs but rather your knowledge of the content of cultural stereotype of Blacks in
America”
List components of stereotype
Complete Modern Racism Scale
High and low prejudice ps report the same things… no difference between HP and LP in the extent to which these have the
knowledge of the Black cultural stereotype
Study 2: Automatic Priming and Prejudice
“Perceptual vigilance task”
Identify the location of the stimulus
Parafoveal priming
Impression formation
Read paragraph about Donald and form impression…
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Document Summary

Prejudice (is it inevitable: categorization - categorize people into different groups, socially shared beliefs about groups, knowledge, acceptance, attitude toward the group. Involves both automatic and controlled processes: controlled: a function of controlled deliberate process; due to motivation (cognitive capacity, automatic: easy, effortless, automatic. Dual-process theories: mental processes underlying social judgment and behaviour can be controlled or automatic. Controlled: automatic, elicited unintentionally, require few cognitive resources, cannot be stopped voluntarily, occur outside of conscious awareness, controlled. Initiated intentionally: require considerable cognitive resources, can be stopped voluntarily, operate within conscious awareness. We all know stereotype, but the accuracy of acting on the prejudice is determined by whether one is lp (higher controlled) vs hp. Individual differences on the modern racism scale (indirect measure): Over the past few years, the government and news media have shown more respect to blacks than they deserve . Over the past few years, blacks have gotten more economically than they deserve .

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