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Lecture 15

Lecture 15 - Mar 15.doc

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PSYC 333
Jennifer Bartz

PSYC333 Lecture 15 - Mar. 15 Sex, Gender & Psychology Gender Differences: • “I’ve been noticing you around campus and I find you to be very attractive” • “Would you go out with me tonight?” • “Would you come over to my apartment tonight?” • “Would you go to bed with me tonight?” • Results: • Men’s response were much higher whether they were asked on a date, go back to apartment, or sleep with the women then women’s responses • Women’s response were only high for date but rejected advances of going to the male’s apart- ment or sleeping with them Sex & Gender: Sex • • Biological meaning of being male or female • Presumably due to genetic and evolutionary factors • Gender • Social/cultural meaning of being male or female • Presumably due to roles and learning Effect Size (d): • Small effect: d = .20 (r = .10) • 15% non-overlapping, 85% overlapping Moderate effect: d = .50 (r = .30) • • 33% non-overlapping, 67% overlapping • Larger effect: d = .80 (r = .50) • 47% non-overlapping, 53% overlapping Are Males & Females Different? • Yes but… biological/physical differences (Positive value: male > female’ sex group mean) • Throwing (velocity): d = 2.18 • Long jump: d = .54 • Fine eye-motor coordination: d = -.21 Differences in mental and social abilities • • Math: d = .41 • Visual-spatial perception: d = .64 • Verbal tests: d = -.11 • Decoding non-verbal cues: d = -.43 • Differences in personality and social behaviour • Aggression (children): d = .50 • Aggression (adults): d = .29 • Leadership: d = .41 • Helping: d = .34 • Influenced by group: d = -.32 Eye gaze: d = -.68 • • Empathy: • Self-report: d = -.99 • Reflexive crying: d = -.27 • Picture story: d = -.10 Accuracy of Gender Stereotypes - Swim: Social Role Theory: • Social structure is the underlying force for gender differences • Sex differences in behaviour is driven by the division of labour between two sexes within a society • Division of labour creates gender roles, which in turn, lead to gendered social behaviour • Various influences including child rearing and biology, bend males and females towards different roles - homemake vs banker • Expectations, skills and beliefs associated with these roles that affect men and women’s behaviour • To conform to expectations about being male, boys manifest traits associated with agency (e.g., competitive) Gender Schema Theory - Bem: • Sex typing Acquisition of sex-appropriate preferences, skills, personalities, behaviours, etc. • • Process by which society translates ‘male’ and ‘female’ to ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ • Derives from gender schematic processing • Readiness on the part of the child to encode and organize information - including info about the self - according to culture’s definitions of ‘maleness’ and ‘femaleness’ • Gender schema developed to process information on the basis of sex-linked associations • Use gender relevant dimensions to develop self-concept, e.g., dominant, nurturing, etc. Gender & Self-Esteem - Josephs, Markus & Tafarodi: • Self-esteem results from living up to culturally mandated, gender-appropriate norms • Men: separation and independence • Women: connection and interdependence • Ps receive negative feedback in relevant domain • “High ability for independent/interdependent thinking” • Assess motivations to restore self-esteem/self regard? • “How would you perform on this test in the future?” • HSE should compensate, but not LSE (feedback consistent with chronic negative self-regard) • Results: • Women with high SE in interdependent test thinks they will do better in a second version of the exam and will show a higher aptitude in thinking • Men with high SE tend to restore self esteem in domain of independent thinking on a future sec- ond version of the test Sex, Gender & Psychology - Helgeson: • Male and female • Masculine and feminine • Limiting because definitions are culture bound and time bound • What are these traits getting at? Agency and communion • Agency: • Focus on self • Separating self from others • Instrumental motives Instrumental in the way they do things • • Power • Dominance Communion: • Focus on others Forming connections with others (relationship and interdependence) • • Expressive motives • Intimacy • Agreeableness Agency & Communion: • Dimensions orthogonal (independent of each other): • High-high • Low-low • High-low
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