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Lecture 21 - Apr 10.doc

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PSYC 333
Jennifer Bartz

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PSYC333 Lecture 21 - Apr. 10 Valuing Self-Growth and Community Versus Wealth and Status What Do People Value? • Helping others and their communities? • A comfortable life with expensive possessions? • Lots of facebook friends? • Having loving and fulfilling relationships? • How do individuals prioritize these various pursuits? How do the values they prioritize influence their happiness and well-be- ing Kasser’s Framework (2002): • 2 broad classes of values distinguished on basis of content • Extrinsic values depend on contingent reaction of others and are typically engaged in as a means to an end (e.g., pursued for rewards and praise) • Intrinsic values are expressive of natural growth tendencies and are likely to satisfy basic psychological needs Values: • Intrinsic values: • Self-growth • To grow and learn new things • Close relationships • To have committed, intimate relationships • Community contribution • To work for the betterment of society • Extrinsic values: • Wealth • To be financially successful • Attractiveness • To have an image that others find appealing • Status/Popularity • To be admired by lots of different people Circular Structure of Values: The Psychological Consequences of Money: • 9 Experiments • Does activating the concept of money lead people to behave more self-sufficiently? Various Methods to Prime: • Descrambling sentence tasks • High a salary desk paying (experimental group) • A high-paying salary • Cold it desk outside is (control group) • It is cold outside • Reading an essay about wealth vs meager finances • Monopoly money • Stack of play money in sight • After playing Monopoly, left with $4000, $200, or no money • Screen saver primes • Poster primes: money or no money Dependent Variables: • Amount of time doing a task before asking for help • Amount of help given • Amount of money donated • Amount of physical distance Results: • Compared to participants primed with neutral concepts, participants reminded of money • Decrease in ask for help • Decrease in offer to help • Increase in physical distance with another person • Increase in working and playing alone • Questionnaire data showing that intrinsic values tend to group together and oppose extrinsic values, which also tend to group together Experimental data showing that money (an extrinsic pursuit) tends to oppose intrinsic pursuits such as offering help and en- • gaging with other people But We All Know That Money Can’t Buy Happiness…Or Do We? • 2 most important goals of Generation Next are wealth and fame • These goals rated above helping people who need help, being community leaders, and spirituality • “How people evaluate their lives - both at the moment and for longer periods such as for the past year. These evaluations in- clude people’s emotional reactions to events, their moods, and judgments they form about their life satisfaction, fulfillment, and satisfaction with domains such as marriage and work.” What Do We Mean by Happiness and Well-Being? Well being pervades and underlies all emotional states • • A feeling of serenity and fulfillment • More than the absence of mental illness • Hedonic well-being (subjective well-being): • Pleasure/Happiness/Positive emotions • Fulfillment/Satisfaction with life • Eudaimonic well-being: • Living in accordance with one’s true self • Feeling authentic and alive • Self-actualization • Vitality Kasser & Ryan (1996): • Community sample of adults aged 18-79 Surveys of values and well-being • • Self-actualization • Vitality • Depression Physical symptoms • Extrinsic Values in North America: Dark Side of the American Dream • Desire to be attractive • Cosmetic surgery
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