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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Jan 24.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 333
Professor
Jennifer Bartz
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC333 Lecture 5 - Jan. 24 Review: • Most people have illusions about the self: • Positively biased self evaluations • Illusions of control More than what’s actually within their control • • Risk assessments • Overconfident and often underestimate reality • Such illusions are adaptive and associated with more positive outcomes (adjust- ment to college, more effective coping, onset of symptoms and course of AIDS) The Better than Average Effect Feeling “Holier Than Thou”: (Epley & Dunning, 2000) • False uniqueness about desirable qualities Cooperative, considerate, fair, kind, loyal, sincere • • Also true of specific behaviours (likelihood of rebelling in Milgram obedience studies) • People chronically feel “holier than thou” • Is this because they: Harbor overly cynical views of their peers • • Or overly charitable views of themselves (and accurate views of their peers)? • False uniqueness about desirable qualities: • People consistently overestimated the likelihood that they would chose the kinder course of action by an average of 32% (but only by 4% for others) People have a lifetime of information about themselves to draw upon, so why do • they have more difficulty predicting their own behaviour? • What kind of information do people consider when making these judgments? • Case based information • Information relevant to the specific case or the person relevant to the specif- ic case • Would those individuals participate • Base rate information • Reference distribution of people’s behaviour in general in similar situations or in situations of the past • Although people are pretty accurate in perceiving, learning and reporting distribu- tional information, they prefer to use case-based information when making predic- tions • People prefer to use case-based information when making predictions • “Internal approach to prediction” • When making predictions about the self in relation to others, people must: • Evaluate their own traits, dispositions and likely behaviour • AND evaluate others’ traits, dispositions and likely behaviour • An error • 4 studies: People overestimate the likelihood that they would choose the kinder course of action by an average of 32% (but only by 4% for others) • Strange finding: People have a lifetime of information about themselves to draw upon, so why do they have more difficulty predicting their own behaviour? “Daffodil Days”: • Conducted at Cornell university • Asked students to purchase daffodil, proceeds go to Cancer Society • 5 weeks before event: • “Will you buy at least one daffodil and, is so, how many?” • Will your peers buy? What is the chance and how many will they buy? • 3 days after event: • “Did you buy any daffodil? How many? • Ps overestimate the extent to • Self-serving attributions errors are more in self view than the predictive behaviours of others • Used within subjects design, Ps are compared to themselves; thus a flaw because it is biased since Ps tend to conform to prediction of their own behaviour • Daffodil study is also flawed because since the event was in the future when asked to predict, maybe they construed the situation to be different then it actually played out “A Saint’s Dilemma”: • Used between subjects design • Not compared to self; compared to other group • Every Ps thought about the same situation Prisoner’s Dilemma (% of Cooperation): • Most participants say they would choose the cooperative method for themselves • Ps would say lower % of other Ps would be cooperative Predicting How Much You Will Donate: • $5.00 paid to you • List of three charities: •Salvation Army •Red Cross •Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals • Compared prediction of what students would do hypothetically in comparison to what they actually physically do • Third scenario had a twi
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