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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - Feb 14.doc

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McGill University
PSYC 333
Jennifer Bartz

PSYC333 Lecture 9 - Feb. 14 The Search For Personal Consistency Extra Class Notes: • Cross-situational consistency - by knowing that someone is conscience, we can predict their con- science behaviour across multiple traits • They is very low cross situational consistency - says Walter Mischel • Data is not random actually, it is important and helps tell the behaviour of an individual but re- quires the use of if-then contingencies Cognitive-Affective System Theory of Personality (CAPS) - Mischel, Shoda & Wright: • Individual differences in conditional probability across situations • On y axis: any dispositional behaviour (i.e. Agreeableness) • Each person fluctuates a great deal in terms of conscience behaviour in all 12 different situations, but these two people, taking their mean conscience behaviour, is the same; thus, does not tell us much • Situation = if, behaviour = then (looks for how people construe the situation) Situations reliably trigger behavioural responses • • Cognitive and affective units mediate the situation to behaviour response • A conditional response • Need to understand the “psychological meaning” of the situation for the individual in order to predict individual’s behaviour • Variability in behaviour across situations not random error that needs to be eliminated, rather, it’s important information that can give us clues about underlying personality system • Should not take our error, but rather understand the error • The situational variance is important; gives us clues for underlying personality system Descriptive Situations (If): • Camp • Characterize the situation by how the child acts in a woodworking class vs at a cabin meeting • School • Playground vs Classroom • Home • Mealtime vs Watching TV • Mischel says we need to move away from these descriptive situations and understand the psycho- logical meaning of the situation of the individual • Drawing links between similar situations helps predict behaviour Interpersonal Situations: • Mischel says to focus on psychological meaning, we need to understand interpersonal situations • How each child behaves in each of the following situation. Understanding how these children psy- chologically construe the situation, we can determine more regularities in the child’s behaviour • Peer approaches • Peer teases • Adult praises • Adult warns • Adult punishes Intra-individual, Situation-behaviour Profiles For Verbal Aggression: • Two child #9 and #28 • Go through 5 situations by standardizing their verbal aggression; lines up using the mean from the rest of the groups, thus 0 is the same as the normative behaviour of the group of children • Child #9: warned by adult elicit verbal aggression; peer tease will not likely elicit verbal aggression • Child #28: opposite of child #9. More verbal aggression when peer teased while less verbal aggres- sion to warning from adult • Random fluctuations are not random, are meaningful, but need to understand the psychological mindset of the children to predict their future behaviour because each child is different Situation: “If Peer Teased” • Red bars indicate the mean correlation of verbal aggressive behaviours across all five situations Like traditional trait theorists • • Blue bars indicate to what extend does a verbal aggressive behaviour on one occasion in a particu- lar situation IF peer teased. The blue bars indicate within situations in which peer teased, to what extent is verbal aggressive behaviour correlated across those situations • Helps prove Mischel’s behaviour There are specific if-then contingencies that develop for these kids • Situation: “If Peer Positive Contact” • Correlation between pro-social talk within situations involving peer positive contact is much higher than just looking at correlation across all five situations Cognitive Affective Mediating Units - Mischel: • These are the factors that influence how that person is construing the social situations: • Encodings or construal • Self, other people, situations • Expectancies and beliefs • About social world, outcomes for behaviour in particular situations, self-efficacy • Affects • Feelings, emotions, affective responses, including physiological arousal to different situations • Goals and values • Desirable and undesirable outcomes and affective states; goals, values, life projects • Competencies and self-regulatory plans • How we regulate ourselves using scripts, strategies for organizing action/affecting outcomes Cognitive-Affective Personality System: • All our cognitive affective mediating units are interrelated • Different scenarios will activate different mediating units for the individual Cognitions and Affects are the ‘Units’: • These units vary in their activation levels and their associations with other units and with features of situations • Some are more chronically activated while others not as much; again, it depends on the differ- ent situations that elicit which units are activated • Selects situations Interprets situations • • Generates situations • “ is the organization of the relationships among them [units] that forms the core of the personality structure…” Rejection Sensitivity - Downey & Feldman: Some people anxiously expect, readily perceive and overreact to rejection • • “You ask a friend to go on vacation with you over Spring Break” • Rate: • Level of concern/anxiety • Likelihood of rejection Some people walk around with vulnerability • • Vigilant to rejection cues • Interpret social interactions in terms of rejection Rejection Sensitivity (RS) & Rejection - Downey & Feldman: • Recruit high/low RS people • Introduced to an opposite sex stranger • Pleasant 10 mins interaction • 2nd interaction; none because: • Time constr
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