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Lecture 22 - Apr 12.doc

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McGill University
PSYC 333
Jennifer Bartz

PSYC333 Lecture 22 - Apr. 12 Wrap Up Construal: • The actor’s subjective understanding or “definition” of his/her situation • Humans actively construe and even construct the phenomena they encounter • The impact of an objective stimulus critically depends on the meaning we attach to it • Contributed to variability of human behaviour (Mischel) • Naïve realism Naïve Realism: • Subjective experience all equal to objective reality Do not fully appreciate the subjectivity of their own construals • • Do not allow for other’s construals when interpreting other’s behaviour • Differences in construal are because others’ are biased (whereas I proceed from available evidence to reasonable interpreta- tions) • I struggle with ambiguities, others see world as black and white • We are both i) oblivious to and ii) exaggerate construal differences They Saw A Game (History & Cantril): • Princeton-Dartmouth football game (1951) • Rough game, with many penalties and some serious injuries • One week later, History and Cantril had Dartmouth and Princeton students fill out a questionnaire… People See What They Want to See: • “Out of all the occurrences going on in the environment, a person selects those that have some significance for him from his own ego- centric position in the total matrix…” • The game “actually was many different games” • Each version of the events that transpired was just as “real” to a par- ticular person as other versions were to other people • Subjects’ perceptions were swayed by their • “In brief, the data here indicate that there is no such ‘thing’ as a ‘game’ existing ‘out there’ in its own right which people merely ‘ob- serve.’ The game ‘exists’ for a person and is experienced by him only insofar as certain happenings have significances in terms of his purpose.” Hostile Media Perception (Vallone, Ross & Lepper): • A 13-minutes news clip about the 1982 Israeli invasion of lebanon • 144 people, evenly split between pro-Israeli and pro-Arab supporters, saw the clip • The more strongly one believed in the cause, the more they see the favouring reference • Reference favouring the other side was evident in both parties Naïve Realism: • I see the world “as it is” • Objective reality • Why would you see it differently? • Uninformed Biased • • Disposition/traits How Unbiased is the Other Person? Different Construals: Because the other person is: • • Lazy • Unintelligent • Driven by ideology, values, temperament Abortion (Robinson, Keltner, Ward & Ross): • Ask pro-choice and pro-life advocates to specify: • Bases for beliefs (i.e., own construals and as- sumptions about abortion) • Estimate views of those on both sides of debate (i.e., how would “typical pro-choice/pro-life student” re- spond?) • Real differences smaller than assumed differences • Pro-life actual sympathy greater than pro-choice or pro-life estimated it to be (and vice-versa) • Underestimate the ambivalence of the other side • I/we appreciate shades of gray; other(s) see issue as black and white • See own position as rational and the other as ideological • My/our construal stems from reason; theirs from ideology Construct Activation: • Schemata • Chronically accessible constructs • Contextually activated • Beyond the storage bin: Not simply discrete representations • • Connectionist processing and activation Four Horseman of Automaticity: • Effortless • Unintentional • Efficient • Uncontrollable Automatic Activation: • Automatic guidanc
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