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Lecture 12

PSYC 333 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Behaviorism, Somatization, Electrodermal Activity


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 333
Professor
Jennifer Bartz
Lecture
12

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Lecture'21:'Attachment''
(March'27)'
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Introduction:''
We'left'off'last'lecture'with'the'topic'of'stereotyping'and'prejudice,'and'the'question'of'
how'we'see'other'people.'For'the'remaining'6'lectures,'we'will'focus'on'how'we'interact'
with'other'people'and'how'it'impacts'our'relationship.''
We'will'look'at'the'self,'paying'attention'to'social'contacts.'''
How'does'the'self'exist'and'develop'in'the'context'of'relationship'with'other'people?''
We'will'begin'with'the'most'fundamental'relationship':'attachment.''
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Plan:'
I.#Attachment#:#definition#and#childhood##
A.'Attachment'definition''
B.'Attachment'theory''
C.'“The'strange'situation”''
D.'Mental'models'of'attachment'''
E.'Individual'differences'in'mental'models'of'attachment''
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II.#Adult#attachment##
A.'The'“Love'Survey”'(Hazan'and'Shaver,'1987)'
B.'Correlates'of'insecure'attachment'
C.'Attachment'model,'gender'and'relationship'stability'(Kirkpatrick'and'Davis,'1994)'
D.'Distress'and'coping'responses'(Mikulincer'et'al,'1993)'
E.'Anxiety'and'social'support'in'lab'(Simpson,'1992)'
F.'Physiological'response'to'stress'(Feeney'and'Kirkpatrick,'1996)'
G.'Brennan'et'al'(1998)'
F.'Suppression'of'unwanted'thoughts''
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III.#A#brief#history#lesson##
A.'Harry'Harlow’s'experiments'on'Contact'Comfort'
B.'Another'paradigm'shift''
C.'Lessons'learned'–'Carol'Travis'
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I.'Attachment':'definition'and'childhood''
A.'Attachment'definition''
Attachment:'“an$affectional$tie$that$one$person$or$animal$forms$between$him(her)self$and$
another$specific$one$–$a$tie$that$binds$them$together$in# space$and# endures# over# time.”$
(Mary'Ainsworth)'
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It'is'more'than'a'connection'between'2'individuals.'It'has'2'key'characteristics:''
-desire#for#regular#contact'
-distress#upon#separation'

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B.'Attachment'theory''
Attachment'theory'was'developed'by'John#Bowlby'(1944,'1951),'a'researcher'who'was'
working'in'London'on'maternal'separation'and'delinquency'of'orphans'after'the'war.'He'
theorized'that'the'separation# could# have# lasting# effect# on# kids,'and'that'there'were'
links#between#separation#and#delinquency.''
Attachment' theory:' The' separation' protest,' the' despair,' the' detachment' in' young'
children' reflects' the' operating' of' an' innate' attachment' system' designed' to' promote'
close'physical'contact'between'infant'and'caregiver.''
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According'to'attachment'theory'there'are'3'features'of'attachment:'
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-proximity#maintenance:'children'want'to'be'close'to'their'caregiver'(cry'and'are'sad'
when'they'are'far'from'him/her)'
-safe# haven:' caregivers' provide' a' safe' haven.' When' children' experience' threat' to' the'
environment'(loud'noise,'shadow'ect),'they'can'return'to'his/her'caregiver'to'feel'safe'
and'calm'down.''
-secure#base:#the'caregiver'give'the'children'a'sense'of'safety,'which'gives'the'children'
the'insurance'to'discover'new'environment.''
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C.'The'“strange'situation”'
The' “strange' situation”:' it' was' use' as' a' paradigm# to# empirically# study# human'
attachment.'It'looks' at'how' kids'react' when'they' are'separated' and'reunited' to'their'
mother.' It' also' reveals' that' there' are# systematic# and# individual# differences# in# the#
mother#–#children#relationship.#
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We'watched'a'short'video'in'which'a'mother'plays'with'her'1'year-old'child'in'a'room.'
Then'the'mother'has'to'go'off'the'room,'and'they'look'at'the'reaction'of'the'kid'when'
she'leaves'and'then'when'she'goes'back.''
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D.'Mental'models'of'attachment''
The'video'describes'3'pattern'of'attachments,'one'secure'and'two'insecure:'
-“secure”:# infant'distressed' but' plays' and' seeks' comfort' upon' reunion.' The' kid' needs'
contact' with' her' mother' before' being' able' to' be' interesting' again' to' the' environment'
and'the'toys.'
-“anxious/ambivalent”:# infant' distressed' but' not' reassured,' preoccupied' with'
availability'of'caregiver.' Sometimes,'babies' cannot'calm'down'because' they'are' angry.'
These'babies'are'called'ambivalent'or'resistant:'they'want'their'mother'back'but'cannot'
use'their'contact'to'calm'down.''
-“avoidant”:' infant' does' not' display' signs' of' distress' upon' separation' (but' internal'
discomfort?)''
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Mental' model' of' self' in' relation' to' (significant)' others:' over' the' course' of' repeated'
interactions' with' the' attachment' figure,' we' develop' different' mental' models' of'
attachment.'They'operate'like'schema:'they'are'general'mental'template'that'we'use'in'
our'social'experience'(like' stereotypes).'They'influence'our' perceptions'and'guide'our'
behaviour'and'expectations'in'future'relationship.''
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E.'Individual'differences'in'mental'models'of'attachment''
Secure:'62%'
Avoidant:'23%'
Anxious'/'Ambivalent:'15%'
Most'children'have'a'secure'mental'model'of'attachment'(62%),'but'some'of'them'are'
avoidant'(23%)'or'anxious/ambivalent'(15%)'
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“Whilst$ especially$ evident$ during$ early$ childhood,$ attachment$ behaviour$ is$ held$ to$
characterize$human$beings$from$the$cradle$to$the$grave.”'(Bowlby,'p.'129)'
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