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Lecture 7

PSYC 342 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Dehydroepiandrosterone, Osteoporosis, Vagus Nerve

Course Code
PSYC 342
Jens C Pruessner

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PSYC 342 Lecture 7 - Jan. 31
Radioimmunoassay: Competitive Binding Assay
Radioimmunoassay can be used with:
Blood samples
Saliva samples
Some problems with the technique:
Dependency on specificity of the antibodies
If the receptor is not specific for a given hormone, it will bind to and thus detect other hormones
from the same category that are not of interest
Cross-reactivity with other hormones with a similar structure
A post-death assessment
Used to determine hormonal uptake and receptor location
Prepare target tissue (usually slices; stain half of them to highlight cellular structure)
Prepare hormone (radio label it)
Expose unstained tissue to hormone
Expose hormone/tissue compounds to photographic film
Develop film
Pharmacological Techniques:
General agonists (mimic the administration of a certain hormone, but it is not released) and antago-
nists (prevent hormone from having anymore reaction by blocking hormone from binding to the re-
Receptor agonists and antagonists
Cannulation (connecting the blood system of two animals; animal A blood connect to animal B)
Brain Imaging:

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Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI)
Genetic Manipulations:
Insertion of a gene not normally there (transgenic)
Removal of a gene not normally there (knockout)
Sexual Determination and Behaviours:
Attribute major significance to the sex of our offspring
Labeling, social norms and rules
How do hormones cause the sexes to differentiate in terms of their morphology, physiology, and
Topic of High Controversy:
Lawrence H Summers
Sex and gender: two different terms
Sex is biological aspect; gender is societal and cultural aspect
How do hormones cause the sexes to differentiate in terms of their morphology, physiology, and
Historical Background:
Aristotle: epigenetic theory of sexual differentiation
Sex emerges during foetal and early life development
Primary and secondary sexual characteristics
Primary sexual characteristics are the organs vital for reproduction, including genes
Secondary sexual characteristics are the things that develop from puberty
Sexual Differentiation Up To Puberty:
Chromosomal sex: men XY, women XX
Gonadal sex: men have testes, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and tubing; women have ovaries,
uterus, oviducts
Hormonal sex: men produce a high androgen to estrogen ratio, women is the opposite
Morphological sex: men are larger and stronger
Sexual orientation: males are usually attracted to females, and vice versa
Gender roles and gender identity: most people have the deep inner conviction that they belong to
the sex they possess (based on society and cultural factors)
From Chromosomes to Gonads:
XX versus XY: genetic imprint
No different between the two during the first six weeks of development: bipotentiality
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