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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Jan 31.doc

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PSYC 342
Jens C Pruessner

PSYC 342 Lecture 7 - Jan. 31 Radioimmunoassay: Competitive Binding Assay • Radioimmunoassay can be used with: • Blood samples • Saliva samples • Some problems with the technique: • Dependency on specificity of the antibodies • If the receptor is not specific for a given hormone, it will bind to and thus detect other hormones from the same category that are not of interest • Cross-reactivity with other hormones with a similar structure Autoradiography: • A post-death assessment • Used to determine hormonal uptake and receptor location • Prepare target tissue (usually slices; stain half of them to highlight cellular structure) • Prepare hormone (radio label it) • Expose unstained tissue to hormone • Expose hormone/tissue compounds to photographic film • Develop film Pharmacological Techniques: • General agonists (mimic the administration of a certain hormone, but it is not released) and antago- nists (prevent hormone from having anymore reaction by blocking hormone from binding to the re- ceptor) Receptor agonists and antagonists • • Cannulation (connecting the blood system of two animals; animal A blood connect to animal B) Brain Imaging: • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) • Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) • Spectroscopy Genetic Manipulations: • Insertion of a gene not normally there (transgenic) • Removal of a gene not normally there (knockout) Sexual Determination and Behaviours: • Attribute major significance to the sex of our offspring • Labeling, social norms and rules • How do hormones cause the sexes to differentiate in terms of their morphology, physiology, and psychology Topic of High Controversy: • Lawrence H Summers • Sex and gender: two different terms • Sex is biological aspect; gender is societal and cultural aspect • How do hormones cause the sexes to differentiate in terms of their morphology, physiology, and psychology Historical Background: • Aristotle: epigenetic theory of sexual differentiation • Sex emerges during foetal and early life development • Primary and secondary sexual characteristics • Primary sexual characteristics are the organs vital for reproduction, including genes • Secondary sexual characteristics are the things that develop from puberty Sexual Differentiation Up To Puberty: • Chromosomal sex: men XY, women XX • Gonadal sex: men have testes, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and tubing; women have ovaries, uterus, oviducts • Hormonal sex: men produce a high androgen to estrogen ratio, women is the opposite Morphological sex: men are larger and stronger • • Sexual orientation: males are usually attracted to females, and vice versa • Gender roles and gender identity: most people have the deep inner conviction that they belong to the sex they possess (based on society and cultural factors) From Chromosomes to Gonads: XX versus XY: genetic imprint • • No different between the two during the first six weeks of development: bipotentiality • On the Y chromosome, there is the SRY gene (sex determining region of the Y chromosome), which produces the TDF (testis determining factor), a protein which will lead to the development of the testes from the germinal ridge • Blueprint of original sex is female unless Y chromosome is expressed • TDF stimulates Leydig cells to prevent the formation of the female genital tract from the Müllerian ducts • Happens through Müllerian Inhibitory Hormone (MIH) • High in males postnatally until puberty • No presence in females until puberty No SRY, no differentiation female • From Genitals to Sexual Development: • The testis, once determined, will then start producing sex-specific hormones which will lead the way to specific sexual development • Whole cycle only present in mammals In reptiles, SRY is present but not critical; instead, temperature determines sex • • Birds: Males have ZZ chromosome and females WZ (default setting male) Mechanisms of Hormone Action: • Testosterone has masculinizing effects through conversion to e
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