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Lecture 6

Lecture 6 - Jan 26.doc

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PSYC 342
Jens C Pruessner

PSYC 342 Lecture 6 - Jan. 26 Estrogen and the Aging Brain: • More lost more hippocampus volume early in life compared to women, but at old age, they are near- ly the same (due to menopause?) Progesterone Receptors in the Brain: • Hypothalamus • Median eminence Amygdala • • Pituitary gland • Role in female and male sexual behaviours, in females often in conjunction with estrogen Testosterone Receptors: • Located in the septum, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland Hypothalamus and pituitary gland use feedback to regulate and find out how much testosterone is • present; amygdala and hippocampus control emotional feedback • Regulates male sexual behaviour, emotion, motivation, spatial ability • Receptors also bind to dihydrotestosterone Adrenal Hormone Receptors in the Brain: Deals with stress and stress regulation • • Two types of receptors: • Type I: Mineralcorticoid receptor • Type II: Glucocorticoid receptor • Type I has high affinity for steroid hormones, Type II low Type I stimulates further hormone release, Type II inhibits • • Type I predominantly in the limbic system and hippocampus, Type II throughout the brain • In low levels, Type I will increase to stimulate further activity of the system until a level where Type II will be activated to inhibit (block); decrease the level until Type I will come back again to restart the system; oscillation of system • The limbic system will be stimulated at all times because they have receptors with low affinity; constant input of steroid hormones into limbic system while the rest of the body (including brain) does not see the glucocorticoid that often • Only at peak activity of the axis will there be a stimulation of non-limbic areas of the brain be- cause they only have Type II hormones (high stress results in the brain knowing about it) Thyroid Hormone Receptors: • Only non-steroid hormones which goes into the brain • Located throughout the brain with highest density in the cerebellum, limbic system, brain stem • Close interaction with adrenergic receptors • In the brain, Thyroid hormones perhaps act as neuromodulators within the adrenergic system • They are closely linked to the development of the brain, hence lots of thyroid hormone receptors in the brain Hormonal Effects on Neuronal Activation: • Genomic effects are not instantaneous • Non-genomic effects of certain hormones • Example: shifting the resting potential of cells in the hippocampus after injection of glucocorticoids Hormones and the Hippocampus (HC): • HC very sensitive to fluctuating levels of gonadal and adrenal steroids • Structural changes, especially within dendrites • Small extensions from the surface, referred to as dendritic spines • Linked with learning and memory, long-term potentiation • Syn
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